The Chimney Sweep (French: Jack le ramoneur) is a 1906 French silent film directed by Georges Méliès.
Jack, a kidnapped boy working as a chimney sweep, is roughly treated and often beaten by his brutal employer. Falling asleep after a long day, he dreams of his lost mother and the fairy tales he heard. The memories transform into a journey through Dream Country, led by the Fairy of Dreams, who turns Jack into a King amid the celebrations of a royal court. The dream ends abruptly when Jack is woken up by his employer for the day’s work.
Jack is busily at work when, behind some bricks inside a chimney, he comes across a box full of gold and money, hidden there many years ago. The employer tries to take possession of the treasure trove, but Jack runs away. A chase ensues through the neighborhood, with townspeople and servants joining in. Jack escapes and hides just before his employer falls into a pit. Finding him covered with mud, the onlookers plunge him into a cask of water.
By good luck, Jack manages to come across his family, and is welcomed back. Surrounded by riches, he forgives his former employer.
From 1905 onward, films by the Pathé Frères studios gained sweeping popularity at fairground cinemas and other venues nicest football jerseys. Méliès attempted to respond to this popularity by imitating their style. Thus, The Chimney Sweep is a bricolage, combining Méliès’s sense of fantasy with the dramatic, realist tone of popular Pathé films, possibly with a young audience in mind. The chase at the end of the film also suggests Méliès’s attempts to keep up with the times, as chase films had become a popular trend.
Méliès appears in the film as one of two men who join the chase scene together; Emile Gajean is the other. The ballet in the film is performed by the corps de ballet of the Théâtre du Châtelet, and was choreographed by Madame Stitchel, their director. Stitchel also choreographed dances for other Méliès films, including Under the Seas. The Ping-Pongs, an English company of dancing girls bottle drinking glasses, played the Troops of Dream Country. Unusually for Méliès, the chase scenes were filmed outdoors: each of these exterior scenes was staged on a different part of Méliès’s own property in Montreuil, Seine-Saint-Denis. Special effects in the film were created using stage machinery, substitution splices, superimpositions, and dissolves.
The film was released by Méliès’s Star Film Company and is numbered 791–806 in its catalogs. In French catalogs, it was advertised as a conte bleu fantastique en 25 tableaux; in English-language catalogs, as “an extravagant ‘cock and bull’ story in 25 scenes.” The English-language catalog writeup for the film also highlighted its comic chase scene, saying that The Chimney Sweep included “Comedy—Mystery—Sensational Adventures—Pathos—Acrobatics—Spectacular Effects and A GREAT BIG CHASE.” The film was registered for copyright at the Library of Congress on 17 February 1906, and showings of it were first advertised in the Phono-Ciné-Gazette on 1 March of the same year. It was offered to exhibitors in both black-and-white and (for a higher price) hand-colored prints.
A fragment of the film survives; the rest is presumed lost.
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LISN (line impedance stabilization network) is a device used in conducted and radiated radio-frequency emission and susceptibility tests, as specified in various Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)/EMI test standards (e.g., by CISPR, International Electrotechnical Commission, CENELEC, U.S. Federal Communications Commission, MIL-STD, etc.)
An LISN is a low-pass filter typically placed between an AC or DC power source and the EUT (Equipment Under Test) to create a known impedance and to provide a Radio frequency (RF) noise measurement port. It also isolates the unwanted RF signals from the power source. In addition, LISNs can be used to predict conducted emission for diagnostic and pre-compliance testing.
The main function of an LISN is to provide a precise impedance to the power input of the EUT, in order to get repeatable measurements of the EUT noise present at the LISN measurement port. This is important because the impedance of the power source and the impedance of the EUT effectively operate as a voltage divider bottle drinking glasses. The impedance of the power source varies, depending on the geometry of the supply wiring behind it.
The anticipated inductance of the power line for the intended installation of the EUT also plays a role in identifying the correct type of LISN needed for testing. For example, a connection in a building will often use 50 µH inductor, whereas in automobile measurement standards a 5 µH inductor is used to emulate a shorter typical wire length.
Another important function of an LISN is to prevent the high-frequency noise of the power source from coupling in the system. A LISN functions as a low pass filter, which provides high impedance to the outside RF noise while allowing the low-frequency power to flow through to the EUT.
Typically, a spectrum analyzer or an EMI receiver is used to take the measurements during an EMC test running belt for water. The input port of such an equipment is very sensitive and prone to damage if overloaded. A LISN provides a measurement port with, usually running with a hydration pack, 50 Ω output impedance. The stabilized impedance, the built-in low-pass filter function, and the DC rejection properties of the LISN measurement port makes it easy to couple the high frequency noise signal to the input of the measuring equipment.
Under a particular EMC test standard, a specific LISN type is required for evaluating and characterizing the operation of the EUT.
Different types of LISNs are available for analyzing DC, single-phase or 3-phase AC power connections. The main parameters for selecting the proper type of LISN are impedance, insertion loss, voltage rating, current rating, number of power conductors and connector types. The upper frequency limit of the LISN also plays an important role when conducted emissions measurements are used for predicting radiated emissions problems. A 100 MHz LISN is used in those cases.
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