Alvis Forrest Gregg (born October 18, 1933) is a former American football player and coach in the National Football League (NFL), the Canadian Football League and the NCAA. A Pro Football Hall of Fame offensive lineman for sixteen seasons, he was a part of six NFL championships exercise belt for phone, five of them with the Green Bay Packers before closing out his tenure with the Dallas Cowboys with a win in Super Bowl VI. Gregg was later the head coach of three NFL teams (Cleveland Browns, Cincinnati Bengals, and the Packers), as well as two Canadian Football League teams (Toronto Argonauts and Shreveport Pirates).
As a player, Gregg was a member of 6 world championship teams (5 with the Packers, and 1 with the Cowboys.)
As a head coach, he led the 1981 Bengals to the Super Bowl, where they lost to the 49ers by a score of 26-21.
Born in Birthright, Texas, Gregg attended Sulphur Springs High School in Sulphur Springs and played college football at Southern Methodist University in Dallas.
Gregg was a key player on the Packers dynasty of head coach Vince Lombardi that won five NFL championships and the first two Super Bowls in the 1960s. He played mostly at right tackle, but also filled in at guard. Gregg earned an “iron-man” tag by playing in a then-league record 188 consecutive games in sixteen seasons, from 1956 until 1971. He also won All-NFL acclaim eight straight years from 1960 through 1967 and was selected to play in nine Pro Bowls.
Gregg closed his career with the Dallas Cowboys, as did his Packer teammate, cornerback Herb Adderley. They both helped the Cowboys win Super Bowl VI in January 1972, making them the only players (along with former teammate Fuzzy Thurston, who was on the Baltimore Colts world championship team in 1958) in professional football history to play on six teams that won World Championships. Gregg wore jersey number 75 for fifteen seasons in Green Bay, but that number belonged to Jethro Pugh in Dallas, so Gregg wore number 79 for his final season in 1971.
Vince Lombardi claimed “Forrest Gregg is the finest player I ever coached!” in his book Run to Daylight. In 1999, he was ranked number 28 on The Sporting News’ list of the 100 Greatest Football Players, ranking him second behind Ray Nitschke among players coached by Lombardi, second behind Anthony Muñoz (whom he coached) among offensive tackles, and third behind Munoz and John Hannah among all offensive linemen.
After serving as an assistant with the San Diego Chargers in 1973, he took a similar position the following year with the Browns. After head coach Nick Skorich was dismissed at the conclusion of the 1974 season, Gregg was promoted to head coach in 1975, a position he held through 1977.
After sitting out the 1978 season, Gregg returned to coaching in 1979 with the Canadian Football League’s Toronto Argonauts. In 1980, he became the head coach of the Cincinnati Bengals for four seasons, through 1983. Gregg’s most successful season as a head coach was in 1981, when he led the Bengals to a 12–4 regular season record. They defeated the San Diego Chargers 27–7 in the AFC championship game (known as the Freezer Bowl), earning them a trip to Super Bowl XVI, where they lost by five points to the San Francisco 49ers, 26–21.
When his longtime former teammate Bart Starr was fired after nine years as head coach of the Packers in December 1983, Gregg was allowed out of his contract with the Bengals to take over in Green Bay. He finished his NFL coaching career with the Packers, leading them for four seasons, 1984 through 1987. Gregg’s overall record as an NFL coach was 75 wins, 85 losses, and one tie. He also won two and lost two playoff games, all with the Bengals.
Gregg voluntarily left the Packers in January 1988 and took a salary reduction to take over at SMU, his alma mater. He was brought in to revive the Mustang football program after it received the “death penalty” from the NCAA for massive violations of NCAA rules
. Although the NCAA had only canceled the 1987 season, school officials later opted to cancel the 1988 season due to fears that it would be impossible to field a competitive team; nearly every letterman from the 1986 squad had transferred elsewhere. Although Gregg knew that any new coach would be essentially rebuilding the program from scratch, when acting president William Stalcup asked him to return, he felt that he could only accept.
As it turned out, when Gregg arrived, he was presented with a severely undersized and underweight roster composed mostly of freshmen. Gregg was taller and heavier than nearly the entire 70-man squad. The team was so short on offensive linemen that Gregg had to make several wide receivers bulk up and switch to the line. By nearly all accounts, it would have been unthinkable for the Mustangs to attempt to play the 1988 season under such conditions.
In 1989, the Mustangs went 2–9, including a 95–21 thrashing by Houston—the second-worst loss in school history make football shirt. During that game, eventual Heisman Trophy winner Andre Ware threw six touchdown passes against SMU in the first half, and David Klingler added four more in the second half wall mounted toothpaste dispenser, even with the game long out of reach. Gregg was so disgusted that he refused to shake Houston coach Jack Pardee’s hand after the game. Nonetheless, Gregg still looks fondly on the experience. In a 2012 interview with The New York Times, he said that the players on the two teams he coached should have had their numbers retired for restoring dignity to the program. “I never coached a group of kids that had more courage,” he said. “They thought that they could play with anyone. They were quality people. It was one of the most pleasurable experiences in my football life. Period.”
After the season, he was named athletic director. The Mustangs went 1–10 in 1990, and after the season Gregg resigned as coach to focus on his duties as athletic director. Gregg’s coaching record at SMU was 3 wins and 19 losses, and he served as athletic director until 1994.
He returned to the CFL with the Shreveport Pirates in 1994–95, during that league’s brief attempt at expansion to the United States. Gregg’s overall record as a CFL coach was 13 wins and 39 losses.
When former Shreveport Pirate owner Bernard Glieberman bought a stake in the Ottawa Renegades in May 2005, Gregg was appointed its vice president of football operations.
Gregg now lives in Colorado Springs, Colorado. In October 2011, he was diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease, thought to be caused by concussions from playing over two decades of high school, college, and pro football.
Pound sign (#) denotes interim head coach
Pound sign (#) denotes interim head coach.
# denotes interim head coach.
Pound sign (#) denotes interim athletic director.
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Im Landkreis Cuxhaven gibt es diese ausgewiesenen geschützten Landschaftsbestandteile.
Ammerland | Aurich | Braunschweig | Celle | Cloppenburg | Cuxhaven | Delmenhorst | Diepholz | Emden | Emsland | Friesland
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Barr Beacon Reservoir is a covered, hill-top drinking water reservoir at Barr Beacon, Walsall, England, opened in 1899 waterproof bags camping. It is operated by South Staffs Water.
One of the uses of the reservoir is to transfer water from the company’s works at Hampton Loade, on the River Severn, to Burton upon Trent. Water is pumped uphill from the Sedgley Beacon Reservoirs, which receive water from Hampton Loade, through 45-inch (110 cm) mains to Barr Beacon Reservoir via West Bromwich Booster. A 36-inch (91 cm) main then carries water by gravity via Seedy Mill works to Burton on Trent.
The water company also operates a weather station, one of several in its network, at the reservoir, to monitor temperature, hours of sunshine, and rainfall.
The reservoir was re-roofed in 1969, temporarily exposing the brick arches which support the roof.
In August 2013, Severn Trent Water launched a £2 million project to build a 2 1/2 mile pipeline linking their Perry Barr Reservoir to Barr Beacon Reservoir, to allow for the exchange of water in emergencies such as severe droughts.
Shortly after 5am on 12 November 2011, the 36-inch water main north of the reservoir burst, emptying the reservoir of around 2,000,000 litres (440,000 imp gal) of water wahl shaver, and flooding up to 150 homes in Aldridge Road, and Elm Tree Road in the Blackwood (Hundred Acre) estate in the Streetly area of Sutton Coldfield
Dozens of families had to be evacuated. Eleven fire trucks, from stations as far away as Erdington, and a high-volume pump from Sheldon, attended. A fire service boat was also deployed. The West Midlands Police, police helicopter, ambulance service and a specialist Automobile Association vehicle recovery unit also attended. Waters did not subside until 8am. The cause of the burst was not known, but South Staffs Water estimated that the floods caused more than a £1 million of damage.
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Агириш — посёлок городского типа в Советском районе Ханты-Мансийского автономного округа. Железнодорожная станция, конечная станция железнодорожной ветки от станции Верхнекондинская (г. Советский) (начало незавершённого направления на Воркуту (Лабытнанги), строительство прекращено в 1980-х см
Территория 1342 га fashion bracelets. Численность населения — 2354 чел. (2016).
Около 250 человек работают в лесоперерабатывающей отрасли, остальные заняты на объектах социально-культурного и бытового назначения. Расположен в северной части района
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, граничит с Берёзовским районом. Расположен в 73 км от районного центра.
Основан в 1969 году. Название видимо происходит от мансийского «агирись» — девочка, дочка. По другой версии название происходит от «агыр» — омут. Первоначально входил в состав Советского поселкового Совета.
29 октября 1974 года образован сельсовет, поселковый Совет − с 22 февраля 1982 года, в декабре 1990 года образована администрация посёлка.
В 90-е годы объединением «Тюментрансгаз» построена бетонная автодорога в связи с началом разработки залежей керамзитовых и диатомитовых глин, используемых в производстве кирпича Югорским заводом.
В перспективе строительство автомагистрали Тюмень—Урай—Агириш—Салехард.
Торский (ныне Няксимвольский) лесхоз
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The Raven is a wooden roller coaster at Holiday World & Splashin’ Safari’s Halloween section in Santa Claus, Indiana, United States. It was designed and built beginning in 1994 by the now-defunct roller coaster manufacturer Custom Coasters International, with the help of designers Dennis McNulty and Larry Bill; it opened on May 6, 1995. The Raven takes its name from Edgar Allan Poe’s poem “The Raven” and features sudden drops and turns which mimic the flight of a raven. From 2000 to 2003, The Raven was voted the world’s “Best Wooden Roller Coaster” at the Golden Ticket Awards, which are presented annually by Amusement Today magazine. It was named an “ACE Roller Coaster Landmark” by American Coaster Enthusiasts on June 23, 2016.
Plans for a new wooden roller coaster were first conceived by park President Will Koch. Koch contacted Custom Coasters International and plans for the then-unnamed roller coaster began to form. The roller coaster remained unnamed until August 1994, when Koch invited magazine editor and fellow amusement park lover Tim O’Brien to tour the site of the future roller coaster. During that tour it was O’Brien who first suggested the name The Raven, deriving the idea from Edgar Allan Poe’s poem “The Raven”. The name was soon made official and construction on The Raven began.
On May 6, 1995, The Raven was opened to riders for the first time. The roller coaster debuted with a single 24-passenger train made by the Philadelphia Toboggan Company. The ceremonial first train was dispatched with one empty seat, after Leah Koch, the daughter of park President Will Koch, opted not to ride. The seat was instead reserved for the spirit of Edgar Allan Poe, who had published his poem “The Raven” exactly 150 years earlier.
In 2005, Holiday World made three changes to The Raven. First, the park added a second train, bringing the ride’s total to two 24-passenger PTC trains. Although the ride had been able to effectively handle the crowds up to that point, adding the second train improved The Raven’s capacity from 700 riders per hour to 960 riders per hour.
In order to accommodate and store the second train when it was not being used, Holiday World added a transfer track to the ride just after the 180° turn out of the station. A transfer track allows a portion of the track to be moved and redirected to a storage bay. This allows an unused train to be stored during normal operation and also provides an additional area for maintenance crews to inspect the roller coaster train.
The third change made to the roller coaster that year was a change in the roller coaster’s control system. Prior to 2005, The Raven was operated manually by the ride operator, who had to push a button to release the brakes and position the train in the station. This type of control system allowed the ride to be operated by a single ride operator. In 2005, an automatic control system was added. The automatic control system automatically controls braking, positioning, and the block system, which prevents the two trains from colliding with each other. This type of control system also necessitates that two ride operators be present to dispatch the train from the station.
The Raven’s station is Gothic-themed, resembling a house one may find in the early 1800s, which was the time period Edgar Allan Poe published the ride’s theming inspiration, “The Raven”. The station has two accessible levels, though it is three or four stories tall in appearance. The first story of the station is at ground level; however, before entering the station, guests will encounter multiple, outdoor queue switchbacks. Once the switchbacks have been navigated, guests will walk directly under part of the roller coaster’s track and into the station. The first story of the station features only a small porch and a staircase leading up to the second story. The second story of the station holds the roller coaster’s loading and unloading areas. On the loading side of the station there are twelve air-powered queue gates, one for each row of the train. The loading side is also the location of the ride operator’s controls. On the unloading side of the station there are free shelves and lockers that riders may use to hold their belongings for the duration of the ride. The unloading side is also the location of a single sliding exit gate.
The Raven uses two red, 24-passenger trains made by the Philadelphia Toboggan Company. Each train is made up of six cars that hold four riders each. Each car has two rows holding two riders each. Each row has a seat divider that separates the two riders in that row and ensures each rider remains in a position allowing their restraints to work effectively. The Raven’s safety restraints include an individual ratcheting lap bar and an individual, two-point lap belt.
The wooden track on The Raven is made out of numerous layers of Southern Yellow Pine, topped with a single layer of steel along the top, sides, and underside of the track where the train’s wheels make contact. The supports for the track itself are wooden as well. The total length of the track is 2,800 feet (850 m) and includes 85 feet (26 m) and 61 feet (19 m) drops, in addition to a 120 feet (37 m) long tunnel. The track features a chain lift hill and three block sections, which allows a maximum of two trains to operate at a time. The Raven uses fin brakes throughout the ride to allow the train to be stopped in the brake run, the station, and the transfer track.
The total ride experience on The Raven lasts approximately one minute and thirty seconds.
The ride begins with riders in the station facing the entrance to the ride. Immediately after dispatch the train takes a 180° turn over the queue area and into the transfer track, which runs parallel to the station. After passing through the transfer track, the train dips down and under the final brake run before latching onto the lift hill chain. The lift hill chain takes the train up to the top of the hill. Once at the top of the lift hill, the train dips down a little and makes a turn to the right as riders overlook the park’s main entrance and the parking lot. The train then dives down its initial 85 feet (26 m) drop at almost 50 miles per hour (80
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Immediately at the bottom of the first drop is The Raven’s single 120 feet (37 m) above-ground tunnel. After exiting the tunnel the train goes back up another hill before making a slight turn to the right and heading back down again for the ride’s second small drop. Following the second drop the train crests the top of a small hill in preparation for a large, sweeping right turn over Lake Rudolph. This turn is considered one of the more photogenic elements of the ride. The turn over Lake Rudolph is a full 180° turn and sends the train back uphill before making a left turn so that the train is now parallel to the top of the second hill. At this point the train dips down and returns uphill in a simultaneous left turn.
Once the train has crested the top of the hill, it enters its 61 feet (19 m) drop, which is also commonly referred to as the “fifth drop”. Following the drop, the train hugs the ground through thickly-wooded terrain while traversing a banked “S” curve, first to the right and then to the left. The train then takes a second large, sweeping right turn. At the conclusion of the right turn, the train makes a quick left turn and immediately enters the brake run to end the ride. If there are two trains operating, the train will wait in the brake run until the second train has left the station. If not, the train will continue directly into the station at which point riders will unload.
The Raven operates in high altitudes and in heavily-wooded areas. Due to these factors, The Raven closes when there is lightning and high winds in Holiday World’s immediate area.
In addition to weather conditions, some riders may be prohibited from boarding. Although there is no age limit, riders must be at least 48 inches (120 cm) tall to ride The Raven. Riders must also be able to fasten both the lap bar and seat belt to ride; due to this restriction, larger riders may not be permitted to ride. All riders must abide by Holiday World’s dress code, which includes wearing a shirt, shorts, and shoes, in order to ride. In addition, riders must leave all loose items in the station; riders who refuse to leave their loose items in the station will not be permitted to ride.
Each year, Holiday World & Splashin’ Safari, in coordination with the Easter Seals Rehabilitation Center of Southwestern Indiana, publishes an accessibility guide for guests with disabilities. It is recommended, though not necessarily required, that all guests with the following conditions refrain from riding The Raven:
On May 31, 2003, Tamar Fellner, a 32-year-old female from New York City, New York, died after falling out of The Raven roller coaster. Fellner was visiting the park to attend “Stark Raven Mad 2003”, an event hosting roller coaster enthusiasts from around the country. At approximately 8:00 pm, Fellner and her fiancé boarded The Raven in the last row of the train. Following a safety check of her lap bar and seat belt by a ride operator, the train left the station. Multiple witnesses reported that they saw Fellner “virtually standing up” during the ride’s initial and subsequent drops. During the ride’s 69 feet (21 m) drop, also called the fifth drop, Fellner was ejected from the car and onto the tracks. When the train returned to the station, Fellner’s fiancé
, ride operators, and a passenger who was a doctor ran back along the tracks, at which point they found Fellner lying under the structure of the roller coaster at the fifth drop. The doctor, aided by park medical personnel, began CPR until an ambulance arrived. Fellner was pronounced dead en route to the hospital.
An investigation following the accident showed that Fellner’s safety restraints were working properly and that there were no mechanical deficiencies on the roller coaster. However, Fellner’s family filed a lawsuit in 2005 against Holiday World and the Philadelphia Toboggan Company, the manufacturer of the roller coaster train. The lawsuit was settled out of court in 2007; terms of the settlement were not disclosed.
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Rowing, often referred to as crew in the United States, is a sport with origins back to Ancient Egyptian times. It is based on propelling a boat (racing shell) on water using oars. By pushing against the water with an oar, a force is generated to move the boat. The sport can be either recreational, where the focus is on learning the technique of rowing, or competitive, where athletes race against each other in boats. There are a number of different boat classes in which athletes compete, ranging from an individual shell (called a single scull) to an eight-person shell with coxswain (called a coxed eight).
Modern rowing as a competitive sport can be traced to the early 10th century when races were held between professional watermen on the River Thames in London, United Kingdom. Often prizes were offered by the London Guilds and Livery Companies. Amateur competition began towards the end of the 18th century with the arrival of “boat clubs” at the British public schools of Eton College and Westminster School. Similarly, clubs were formed at the University of Oxford, with a race held between Brasenose College and Jesus College in 1815. At the University of Cambridge the first recorded races were in 1827. Public rowing clubs were beginning at the same time; in England Leander Club was founded in 1818, in Germany Der Hamburger und Germania Ruder Club was founded in 1836 and in the United States Narragansett Boat Club was founded in 1838 and Detroit Boat Club was founded in 1839. In 1843, the first American college rowing club was formed at Yale University.
The International Rowing Federation (French: Fédération Internationale des Sociétés d’Aviron, abbreviated FISA) is responsible for international governance of rowing and was founded in 1892 to provide regulation at a time when the sport was gaining popularity. Across six continents there are now 148 countries with rowing federations that participate in the sport.
Rowing is one of the oldest Olympic sports. It was on the programme for the 1896 games but the rowing did not take place due to bad weather. It has been competed since 1900. Women’s rowing was added to the Olympic programme in 1976. Today, only fourteen boat classes are raced at the Olympics, across men and women. Each year the World Rowing Championships is held by FISA with 22 boat classes raced. In Olympic years only the non-Olympic boat classes are raced at the World Championships. The European Rowing Championships are held annually, along with three World Rowing Cups in which each event earns a number of points for a country towards the World Cup title. Since 2008, rowing has also been competed at the Paralympic Games.
Major domestic competitions take place in dominant rowing nations and include The Boat Race and Henley Royal Regatta in the United Kingdom, the Australian Rowing Championships in Australia, the Harvard-Yale Regatta and Head of the Charles Regatta in the United States, and Royal Canadian Henley Regatta in Canada. Many other competitions often exist for racing between clubs, schools, and universities in each nation.
While rowing, the athlete sits in the boat facing toward the stern, and uses the oars which are held in place by the oarlocks to propel the boat forward (towards the bow). This may be done on a canal, river, lake, sea, or other large bodies of water. The sport requires strong core balance, physical strength, flexibility, and cardiovascular endurance.
Whilst the action of rowing and equipment used remains fairly consistent throughout the world, there are many different types of competition. These include endurance races, time trials, stake racing, bumps racing, and the side-by-side format used in the Olympic games. The many different formats are a result of the long history of the sport, its development in different regions of the world, and specific local requirements and restrictions.
There are two forms of rowing:
The rowing stroke may be characterized by two fundamental reference points. The catch, which is placement of the oar blade in the water, and the extraction, also known as the finish or release, when the rower removes the oar blade from the water. The action between catch and release is the first phase of the stroke that propels the boat.
At the catch the rower places the blade in the water and applies pressure to the oar by pushing the seat toward the bow of the boat by extending the legs, thus pushing the boat through the water. The point of placement of the blade in the water is a relatively fixed point about which the oar serves as a lever to propel the boat. As the rower’s legs approach full extension, the rower pivots the torso toward the bow of the boat and then finally pulls the arms towards his or her chest. The hands meet the chest right above the diaphragm.
At the end of the stroke, with the blade still in the water, the hands drop slightly to unload the oar so that spring energy stored in the bend of the oar gets transferred to the boat, which eases removing the oar from the water and minimizes energy wasted on lifting water above the surface (splashing).
The recovery phase follows the drive. The recovery starts with the extraction and involves coordinating the body movements with the goal to move the oar back to the catch position. In extraction, the rower pushes down on the oar handle to quickly lift the blade from the water and rapidly rotates the oar so that the blade is parallel to the water. This process is sometimes referred to as feathering the blade. Simultaneously, the rower pushes the oar handle away from the chest. The blade emerges from the water square and feathers immediately once clear of the water. After feathering and extending the arms, the rower pivots the body forward. Once the hands are past the knees, the rower compresses the legs which moves the seat towards the stern of the boat. The leg compression occurs relatively slowly compared to the rest of the stroke, which affords the rower a moment to recover, and allows the boat to glide through the water. The gliding of the boat through the water during recovery is often called run.
A controlled slide is necessary to maintain momentum and achieve optimal boat run. However, various teaching methods disagree about the optimal relation in timing between drive and recovery. Near the end of the recovery, the rower squares the blade into perpendicular orientation with respect to the water, and begins another stroke.
There are two schools of thought with respect to the appropriate breathing technique during the rowing motion: Full lungs at the catch and empty lungs at the catch.
With the full lung technique, rowers exhale during the stroke and inhale during the recovery. In laboured circumstances, rowers will take a quick pant at the end of the stroke before taking a deep breath on the recovery that fills the lungs by the time the catch is reached.
In the empty-lung technique, rowers inhale during the drive, and exhale during the recovery so that they have empty lungs at the catch. Because the knees come up to the chest when the lungs are empty, this technique allows the rower to reach a little bit further than if the lungs were full of air. Full lungs at the release also can help the rower to maintain a straighter back, a style encouraged by many coaches.
A scientific study of the benefits of entrained breathing technique in relatively fit, but untrained rowers did not show any physiological or psychological benefit to either technique.
Rowing is a cyclic (or intermittent) form of propulsion such that in the quasi-steady state the motion of the system (the system comprising the rower, the oars, and the boat), is repeated regularly. In order to maintain the steady-state propulsion of the system without either accelerating or decelerating the system, the sum of all the external forces on the system, averaged over the cycle, must be zero. Thus, the average drag (retarding) force on the system must equal the average propulsion force on the system. The drag forces consist of aerodynamic drag on the superstructure of the system (components of the boat situated above the waterline), as well as the hydrodynamic drag on the submerged portion of the system. The propulsion forces are the forward reaction of the water on the oars while in the water. Note also that the oar can be used to provide a drag force (a force acting against the forward motion) when the system is brought to rest.
Although the oar can be conveniently thought of as a lever with a “fixed” pivot point in the water, the blade moves sideways and sternwards through the water, so that the magnitude of the propulsion force developed is the result of a complex interaction between unsteady fluid mechanics (the water flow around the blade) and solid mechanics and dynamics (the handle force applied to the oar, the oar’s inertia and bending characteristic, the acceleration of the boat and so on).
The distinction between rowing and other forms of water transport, such as canoeing or kayaking, is that in rowing the oars are held in place at a pivot point that is in a fixed position relative to the boat, this point is the load point for the oar to act as a second class lever (the blade fixed in the water is the fulcrum). In flatwater rowing, the boat (also called a shell or fine boat) is narrow to avoid drag, and the oars are attached to oarlocks at the end of outriggers extending from the sides of the boat. Racing boats also have sliding seats to allow the use of the legs in addition to the body to apply power to the oar. Racing shells are inherently unstable, much like racing kayaks or canoes. The rowing boats require oars on both sides to prevent them from rolling over.
Rowing is one of the few non-weight bearing sports that exercises all the major muscle groups, including quads, biceps, triceps, lats, glutes and abdominal muscles. In fact, racing a 2k is as physically demanding as playing 2 basketball games back-to-back. The sport also improves cardiovascular endurance and muscular strength. High-performance rowers tend to be tall and muscular: although extra weight does increase the drag on the boat, the larger athletes’ increased power tends to be more significant. The increased power is achieved through increased length of leverage on the oar through longer limbs of the athlete. In multi-person boats (2,4, or 8), the lightest person typically rows in the bow seat at the front of the boat.
Rowing is a low impact activity with movement only in defined ranges, so twist and sprain injuries are rare. However, the repetitive rowing action can put strain on knee joints, the spine and the tendons of the forearm, and inflammation of these are the most common rowing injuries. If one rows with poor technique, especially rowing with a curved rather than straight back, other injuries may surface, including back pains. Blisters occur for almost all rowers, especially in the beginning of one’s rowing career, as every stroke puts pressure on the hands, though rowing frequently tends to harden hands and generate protective calluses. Holding the oars too tightly or making adjustments to technique may cause recurring or new blisters, as it is common to feather the blade (previously described). Another common injury is getting “track bites”, thin cuts on the back of one’s calf or thigh caused by contact with the seat tracks at either end of the stroke.
Even since the earliest recorded references to rowing, the sporting element has been present. An Egyptian funerary inscription of 1430 BC records that the warrior Amenhotep (Amenophis) II was also renowned for his feats of oarsmanship. In the Aeneid, Virgil mentions rowing forming part of the funeral games arranged by Aeneas in honour of his father. In the 13th century, Venetian festivals called regata included boat races among others.
The first known “modern” rowing races began from competition among the professional watermen in the United Kingdom that provided ferry and taxi service on the River Thames in London. Prizes for wager races were often offered by the London Guilds and Livery Companies or wealthy owners of riverside houses. The oldest surviving such race, Doggett’s Coat and Badge was first contested in 1715 and is still held annually from London Bridge to Chelsea. During the 19th century these races were to become numerous and popular, attracting large crowds. Prize matches amongst professionals similarly became popular on other rivers throughout Great Britain in the 19th century, notably on the Tyne. In America, the earliest known race dates back to 1756 in New York, when a pettiauger defeated a Cape Cod whaleboat in a race.
Amateur competition in England began towards the end of the 18th century. Documentary evidence from this period is sparse, but it is known that the Monarch Boat Club of Eton College and the Isis Club of Westminster School were both in existence in the 1790s. The Star Club and Arrow Club in London for gentlemen amateurs were also in existence before 1800. At the University of Oxford bumping races were first organised in 1815 when Brasenose College and Jesus College boat clubs had the first annual race while at Cambridge the first recorded races were in 1827. Brasenose beat Jesus to win Oxford University’s first Head of the River; the two clubs claim to be the oldest established boat clubs in the world. The Boat Race between Oxford University and Cambridge University first took place in 1829, and was the second intercollegiate sporting event (following the first Varsity Cricket Match by 2 years). The interest in the first Boat Race and subsequent matches led the town of Henley-on-Thames to begin hosting an annual regatta in 1839.
Founded in 1818, Leander Club is the world’s oldest public rowing club. The second oldest club which still exists is the Der Hamburger und Germania Ruder Club which was founded 1836 and marked the beginning of rowing as an organized sport in Germany. During the 19th century, as in England, wager matches in North America between professionals became very popular attracting vast crowds. was founded in 1838 exclusively for rowing. During an 1837 parade in Providence, R.I, a group of boatmen were pulling a longboat on wheels, which carried the oldest living survivor of the 1772 Gaspee Raid. They boasted to the crowd that they were the fastest rowing crew on the Bay. A group of Providence locals took issue with this and challenged them to race, which the Providence group summarily won. The six-man core of that group went on the following year to found NBC in 1838. Detroit Boat Club was founded in 1839 and is the second oldest continuously-operated rowing club in the U.S. In 1843, the first American college rowing club was formed at Yale University. The Harvard-Yale Regatta is the oldest intercollegiate sporting event in the United States, having been contested every year since 1852 (excepting interruptions for wars).
The sport’s governing body is formally known as the “Fédération Internationale des Sociétés d’Aviron” (English translation: International Federation of Rowing Associations), though, the majority of the time, either the initialism “FISA” or the English co-name, World Rowing, which the organization “uses for ‘commercial purposes,'” is used to refer to it. Founded by representatives from France, Switzerland, Belgium, Adriatica (now a part of Italy), and Italy in Turin on 25 June 1892, FISA is the oldest international sports federation in the Olympic movement.
FISA first organized a European Rowing Championships in 1893. An annual World Rowing Championships was introduced in 1962. Rowing has also been conducted at the Olympic Games since 1900 (cancelled at the first modern Games in 1896 due to bad weather).
Racing boats (often called shells) are long, narrow, and broadly semi-circular in cross-section in order to reduce drag to a minimum. There is some trade off between boat speed and stability in choice of hull shape. They usually have a fin towards the rear, to help prevent roll and yaw and to increase the effectiveness of the rudder.
Originally made from wood, shells are now almost always made from a composite material (usually a double skin of carbon-fibre reinforced plastic with a sandwich of honeycomb material) for strength and weight advantages. FISA rules specify minimum weights for each class of boat so that no individual team will gain a great advantage from the use of expensive materials or technology.
There are several different types of boats. They are classified using:
Although sculling and sweep boats are generally identical to each other (except having different riggers), they are referred to using different names:
With the smaller boats, specialist versions of the shells for sculling can be made lighter. The riggers in sculling apply the forces symmetrically to each side of the boat, whereas in sweep oared racing these forces are staggered alternately along the boat. The sweep oared boat has to be stiffer to handle these unmatched forces, so consequently requires more bracing and is usually heavier – a pair (2-) is usually a more robust boat than a double scull (2x) for example, and being heavier is also slower when used as a double scull. In theory this could also apply to the 4x and 8x, but most rowing clubs cannot afford to have a dedicated large hull which might be rarely used and instead generally opt for versatility in their fleet by using stronger shells which can be rigged for either sweep rowing or sculling. The symmetrical forces also make sculling more efficient than rowing: the double scull is faster than the coxless pair, and the quadruple scull is faster than the coxless four.
One additional boat is the queep, a coxed or non-coxed shell. The bow and stroke positions have a set of sculling riggers and two and three have a sweep set. These shells have been used in the UK and recently at a club in Victoria BC, Canada. In addition to the queep the trop and the coxed trop are become more mainstream. They are mainly rowed in central Canada. The trop shell consists of three people where the bow has a pair of sculling oars, and 2,3 each a sweeping oar. A coxed trop is the same configuration as the trop plus a coxed seated at the stern of the boat.
Many adjustments can be made to the equipment to accommodate the physiques of the crew. Collectively these adjustments are known as the boat’s rigging.
Single, double, and quad sculls are usually steered by the scullers pulling harder on one side or the other. In other boats, there is a rudder, controlled by the coxswain, if present, or by one of the crew. In the latter case, the rudder cable is attached to the toe of one of his shoes which can pivot about the ball of the foot, moving the cable left or right. The bowman may steer since he has the best vision when looking over his shoulder. On straighter courses, the strokesman may steer, since he can point the stern of the boat at some landmark at the start of the course. On international courses, landmarks for the steersmen, consisting of two aligned poles, may be provided.
Oars are used to propel the boat. There are three types of oars, tulips (a less efficient way of sculling), sculling oars with a blade, and rowing blades with a blade. They are long (sculling: 250–300 cm; rowing 340–360 cm) poles with one flat end about 50 cm long and 25 cm wide, called the blade. Classic oars were made out of wood, but modern oars are made from more expensive and durable synthetic material, the most common being carbon fiber.
An oar is often referred to as a blade in the case of sweep oar rowing and as a scull in the case of sculling. A sculling oar is shorter and has a smaller blade area than the equivalent sweep oar. The combined blade area of a pair of sculls is however greater than that of a single sweep oar, so the oarsman when sculling is working against more water than when rowing sweep-oared. He is able to do this because the body action in sculling is more anatomically efficient (due to the symmetry).
The spoon of oars is normally painted with the colours of the club to which they belong. This greatly simplifies identification of boats at a distance. As many sports teams have logos printed on their jerseys, rowing clubs have specifically painted blades that each team is associated with.
Indoor rowing (on ergometer, or tank) is a way to train technique and strength by going through the same motions as rowing, with resistance. Indoor rowing is helpful when there are no rowable bodies of water near by, or weather conditions don’t permit rowing.
A rowing tank is an indoor facility which attempts to mimic the conditions rowers face on open water. Rowing tanks are primarily used for off-season rowing, muscle specific conditioning and technique training, or simply when bad weather doesn’t allow for open water training.
Ergometer rowing machines (colloquially ergs or ergo) simulate the rowing action and provide a means of training on land when waterborne training is restricted, and of measuring rowing fitness. Ergometers do not simulate the lateral balance challenges, the exact resistance of water, or the exact motions of true rowing including the sweep of the oar handles. For that reason ergometer scores are generally not used as the sole selection criterion for crews, and technique training is limited to the basic body position and movements. However, this action can still allow a comparable workout to those experienced on the water.
Sometimes, slides are placed underneath the erg to try to simulate the movement of being on the water. It allows the machine to move back and forth smoothly as if there is water beneath you. The slides can be connected in rows or columns so that rowers are forced to move together on the ergometer, similar to how they would match up their rhythm in a boat.
Indoor rowing has become popular as a sport in its own right with numerous indoor competitions (and the annual World Championship CRASH-B Sprints in Boston) during the winter off-season.
The most commonly damaged piece of rowing equipment is the skeg, which is a metal or plastic fin that comes out of the bottom of the boat to help maintain stability, and to assist in steering. Since the skeg sticks out below the hull of the boat it is the most vulnerable to damage, however it is relatively easy to replace skegs by gluing a new one on. Hull damage is also a significant concern both for maintaining equipment, and for rower safety. Hull damage can be caused by submerged logs
, poor strapping to trailers, and collisions with other boats, docks, rocks, etc.
Boats are conveyed to competitions on special trailers accommodating up to 20 boats.
Racing boats are stored in boat houses. These are specially designed storage areas which usually consist of a long two-story building with a large door at one end which leads out to a pontoon or slipway on the river or lakeside. The boats are stored on racks (horizontal bars, usually metal) on the ground floor. Oars, riggers, and other equipment is stored around the boats. Boat houses are typically associated with rowing clubs and include some social facilities on the upper floor: a cafe, bar, or gym.
Boat centers are commonly built along river banks in major U.S. cities. The Thompson Boat Center (TBC), managed by the U.S. National Park Service, is used as a “home base” for high school and adult teams in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area. Regattas are frequently held at TBC through the spring, summer, and fall.
Rowers may take part in the sport for their leisure or they may row competitively. There are different types of competition in the sport of rowing. In the U.S. all types of races are referred to as regattas whereas this term is only used in the UK for head-to-head or multi-lane races (such as those that take place at Dorney Lake), which generally take place in the summer season. Time trials occur in the UK during the winter, and are referred to as Head races. In the US, head races (usually about 5k, depending on the body of water) are rowed in the fall, while 2k sprint races are rowed in the spring and summer.
Rowing is unusual in the demands it places on competitors. The standard world championship race distance of 2,000 metres is long enough to have a large endurance element, but short enough (typically 5.5 to 7.5 minutes) to feel like a sprint. This means that rowers have some of the highest power outputs of athletes in any sport. At the same time the motion involved in the sport compresses the rowers’ lungs, limiting the amount of oxygen available to them. This requires rowers to tailor their breathing to the stroke, typically inhaling and exhaling twice per stroke, unlike most other sports such as cycling where competitors can breathe freely.
Most races that are held in the spring and summer feature side by side racing, or sprint racing, sometimes called a regatta; all the boats start at the same time from a stationary position and the winner is the boat that crosses the finish line first. The number of boats in a race typically varies between two (which is sometimes referred to as a dual race) to six, but any number of boats can start together if the course is wide enough.
The standard length races for the Olympics and the World Rowing Championships is 2 kilometres (1.24 mi) long, 1.5 kilometres (0.93 mi) – 2 kilometres (1.24 mi) for US high school races on the east coast and 1,000 m for masters rowers (rowers older than 27). However the race distance can and does vary from dashes or sprints, which may be 500 metres (1,640 ft) long, to races of marathon or ultra-marathon length races such as the Tour du Léman in Geneva, Switzerland which is 160 kilometres (99 mi), and the 2 day, 185-kilometre (115 mi) Corvallis to Portland Regatta held in Oregon, USA. In the UK, regattas are generally between 500 metres (1,640 ft) and 2 kilometres (1.24 mi) long.
A feature of the end of twentieth century rowing was the development of non-olympic multicrew racing boats, typically fixed seat-gigs, pilot boats and in Finland church- or longboats. The most usual craft in races held around the coasts of Britain during summer months is the Cornish pilot gig, most typically in the south-west, with crews of 6 from local towns and races of varying distances. The Cornish pilot gig was designed and built to ferry harbour and river pilots to and from ships in fierce coastal waters. The boat needed to be stable and fast with the large crew hence making it ideal for its modern racing usage. In Finland 14-oared churchboats race throughout the summer months, usually on lakes, and often with mixed crews. The largest gathering sees over 7000 rowers mainly rowing the 60 kilometres (37 mi) course at Sulkava near the eastern border over a long weekend in mid July. The weekend features the World Masters churchboat event which also includes a 2 kilometres (1.24 mi) dash.
Two traditional non-standard distance shell races are the annual Boat Race between Oxford and Cambridge and the Harvard-Yale Boat Race which cover courses of approximately 4 miles (6.44 km). The Henley Royal Regatta is also raced upon a non-standard distance at 2,112 meters (1 mile, 550 yards).
In general, multi-boat competitions are organized in a series of rounds, with the fastest boats in each heat qualifying for the next round. The losing boats from each heat may be given a second chance to qualify through a repechage. The World Rowing Championships offers multi-lane racing in heats, finals and repechages. At Henley Royal Regatta two crews compete side by side in each round, in a straightforward knock-out format, with no repechages.
Head races are time trial / processional races that take place from autumn (fall) to early spring (depending on local conditions). Boats begin with a rolling start at intervals of 10 – 20 seconds, and are timed over a set distance. Head courses usually vary in length from 2,000 metres (1.24 mi) to 12,000 metres (7.46 mi), though there are longer races such as the Boston Rowing Marathon and shorter such as Pairs Head.
The oldest, and arguably most famous, head race is the Head of the River Race, founded by Steve Fairbairn in 1926 which takes place each March on the river Thames in London, United Kingdom. Head racing was exported to the United States in the 1950s, and the Head of the Charles Regatta held each October on the Charles River in Boston, Massachusetts, United States is now the largest rowing event in the world.
These processional races are known as Head Races, because, as with bumps racing, the fastest crew is awarded the title Head of the River (as in “head of the class”). It was not deemed feasible to run bumps racing on the Tideway, so a timed format was adopted and soon caught on.
Time trials are sometimes used to determine who competes in an event where there is a limited number of entries, for example the qualifying races for Henley Royal Regatta, and rowing on and getting on for the Oxford and Cambridge Bumps races respectively.
A bumps race is a multi-day race beginning with crews lined up along the river at set intervals. They start simultaneously and all pursue the boat ahead while avoiding being bumped by a boat from behind. If a crew overtakes or makes physical contact with the crew ahead, a bump is awarded. As a result, damage to boats and equipment is common during bumps racing. To avoid damage the cox of the crew being bumped may concede the bump before contact is actually made. The next day, the bumping crew will start ahead of any crews that have been bumped. The positions at the end of the last race are used to set the positions on the first day of the races the next year. Oxford and Cambridge Universities hold bumps races for their respective colleges twice a year, and there are also Town Bumps races in both cities, open to non-university crews. Oxford’s races are organised by City of Oxford Rowing Club and Cambridge’s are organised by the Cambridgeshire Rowing Association.
The stake format was often used in early American races. Competitors line up at the start, race to a stake, moored boat, or buoy some distance away, and return. The 180° turn requires mastery of steering. These races are popular with spectators because one may watch both the start and finish. Usually only two boats would race at once to avoid collision. The Green Mountain Head Regatta continues to use the stake format but it is run as a head race with an interval start. A similar type of racing is found in UK and Irish coastal rowing, where a number of boats race out to a given point from the coast and then return fighting rough water all the way. In Irish coastal rowing the boats are in individual lanes with the races consisting of up to 3 turns to make the race distance 2.3 km.
The Olympic Games are held every four years, where only select boat classes are raced (14 in total):
At the end of each year, the FISA holds the World Rowing Championships with events in 22 different boat classes. Athletes generally consider the Olympic classes to be premier events . During Olympic years only non-Olympic boats compete at the World Championships.
There are many differing sets of rules governing racing, and these are generally defined by the governing body of the sport in a particular country—e.g., British Rowing in England and Wales, Rowing Australia in Australia, and USRowing in the United States. In international competitions, the rules are set out by the world governing body, the Fédération Internationale des Sociétés d’Aviron (FISA). The rules are mostly similar but do vary; for example, British Rowing requires coxswains to wear buoyancy aids at all times, whereas FISA rules do not.
In all boats, with the exception of single sculls, each rower is numbered in sequential order, low numbers at the bow, up to the highest at the stern. The person seated on the first seat is called the bowman, or just ‘bow’, whilst the rower closest to the stern is called the ‘strokeman’ or just ‘stroke’. There are some exceptions to this – some UK coastal rowers, and in France, Spain, and Italy rowers number from stern to bow.
In addition to this, certain crew members have other titles and roles. In an 8+ the stern pair are responsible for setting the stroke rate and rhythm for the rest of the boat to follow. The middle four (sometimes called the “engine room” or “power house”) are usually the less technical, but more powerful rowers in the crew, whilst the bow pair are the more technical and generally regarded as the pair to set up the balance of the boat. They also have most influence on the line the boat steers.
The coxswain (or simply the cox) is the member who sits in the boat facing the bow, steers the boat, and coordinates the power and rhythm of the rowers – by communicating to the crew through a device called a cox box and speakers. They usually sit in the stern of the boat, except in bowloaders where the coxswain lies in the bow. Bowloader are usually seen as the coxed four and coxed pair type of boat.
It is an advantage for the coxswain to be light, as this requires less effort for the crew to propel the boat. In many competitive events there is a minimum weight set for the coxswain to prevent unfair advantage.
If a coxswain is under the minimum weight allowance (underweight) they may have to carry weights in the boat such as sandbags.
In most levels of rowing there are different weight classes – typically “open” (or referred to as “heavyweight”) and lightweight. Competitive rowing favours tall, muscular athletes due to the additional leverage height provides in pulling the oar through the water as well as the explosive power needed to propel the boat at high speed.
Heavyweight rowers of both sexes tend to be very tall, broad-shouldered, have long arms and legs as well as tremendous cardiovascular capacity and very low body fat ratios. Olympic or International level heavyweight male oarsmen are typically anywhere between 190 cm and 206 cm (6’3″ to 6’9″) tall with most being around 198 cm (6’6″) and weighing approximately 102 kg (225 lb) with about 6 to 7% body fat.
Heavyweight women are slightly shorter at around 186 cm (6’1″) and lighter than their male counterparts.
Some rowing enthusiasts claim that the disproportionate number of tall rowers is simply due to the unfair advantage that tall rowers have on the ergometer. This is due to the ergometer’s inability to properly simulate the larger rowers drag on a boat due to weight. Since the ergometer is used to assess potential rowers, results on the ergometer machine play a large role in a rower’s career success. Thus, many erg scores are weight-adjusted, as heavyweights typically find it easier to get better erg scores. Also, since crew selection has favored tall rowers long before the advent of the ergometer, and bigger
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, taller crews are almost universally faster than smaller, shorter crews on the water, being tall is a definite advantage ultimately having little to do with the ergometer.
Unlike most other non-combat sports, rowing has a special weight category called lightweight (Lwt for short). According to FISA, this weight category was introduced “to encourage more universality in the sport especially among nations with less statuesque people”. The first lightweight events were held at the World Championships in 1974 for men and 1985 for women. Lightweight rowing was added to the Olympics in 1996.
At international level the limits are:
The Olympic lightweight boat classes are limited to; Men’s double (LM2x), Men’s four (LM4-), Women’s double (LW2x).
At the junior level (in the United States), regattas require each rower to weigh in at least two hours before their race; they are sometimes given two chances to make weight at smaller regattas, with the exception of older more prestigious regattas, which allow only one opportunity to make weight. For juniors in the United States, the lightweight cutoff for men is 150.0 lb.; for women, it is 130.0 lb. In the fall the weight limits are increased for women
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, with the cutoff being 135 lb.
At the collegiate level (in the United States), the lightweight weight requirements can be different depending on competitive season. For fall regattas (typically head races), the lightweight cutoff for men is 165.0 lb. and 135.0 lb. for women. In the spring season (typically sprint races), the lightweight cutoff for men is 160.0 lb., with a boat average of 155.0 lb. for the crew; for women, the lightweight cutoff is 130.0 lb.
Women row in all boat classes, from single scull to coxed eights, across the same age ranges and standards as men, from junior amateur through university-level to elite athlete. Typically men and women compete in separate crews although mixed crews and mixed team events also take place. Coaching for women is similar to that for men. The world’s first women’s rowing team was formed in 1896 at the Furnivall Sculling Club in London.
The first international women’s races were the 1954 European Rowing Championships. The introduction of women’s rowing at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal increased the growth of women’s rowing because it created the incentive for national rowing federations to support women’s events. Rowing at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London included six events for women compared with eight for men. In the US, rowing is an NCAA sport for women but not for men; though it is one of the country’s oldest collegiate sports, the difference is in large part due to the requirements of Title IX.
At the international level, women’s rowing traditionally has been dominated by Eastern European countries, such as Romania, Russia, and Bulgaria, although other countries such as Germany, Canada, the Netherlands, Great Britain and New Zealand often field competitive teams. The United States also has had very competitive crews, and in recent years these crews have become even more competitive given the surge in women’s collegiate rowing.
Adaptive rowing is a special category of races for those with physical disabilities. Under FISA rules there are 5 boat classes for adaptive rowers; mixed (2 men and 2 women plus cox) LTA (Legs, Trunk, Arms), mixed intellectual disability (2 men and 2 women plus cox) LTA (Legs, Trunk, Arms), mixed (1 man and 1 woman) TA (Trunk and Arms), and men’s and women’s AS (Arms and Shoulders). Events are held at the World Rowing Championships and were also held at the 2008 Summer Paralympics.
Rowing events use a systematic nomenclature for the naming of events, so that age, gender, ability and size of boat can all be expressed in a few numbers and letters. The first letter to be used is ‘L’ or ‘Lt’ for lightweight. If absent then the crew is open weight. This can be followed by either a ‘J’ or ‘B’ to signify junior (under 19 years) or under 23 years respectively. If absent the crew is open age (the letter ‘O’ is sometimes used). Next is either an ‘M’ or ‘W’ to signify if the crew are men or women. Then there is a number to show how many athletes are in the boat (1,2,4 or 8). An ‘x’ following the number indicates a sculling boat. Finally either a + or – is added to indicate whether the boat is coxed or coxswainless.
Some events will use an experience rating to separate races. In the UK boats are classed as “Elite”, “Senior”, “Intermediate 1/2/3” or “Novice”, depending on the number of wins the athletes have accumulated. Masters events use age ranges to separate crews of older rowers.
Sculling Boat Abbreviations and Names:
Rowing Boat Abbreviations and Names:
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La cucina catalana è la cucina mediterranea della Catalogna. Con questa terminologia ci si riferisce anche alla cucina di Roussillon e Andorra. Quest’ultima è simile alle cucine delle comarche di Alt Urgell e Cerdanya a cui spesso ci si riferisce come cucina catalana montana. Fa parte della cucina mediterranea occidentale.
La cucina catalana si affida a ingredienti freschi della costa mediterranea, tra cui verdure fresche, come pomodori, melanzane, carciofi, funghi e aglio, prodotti del grano (pane e pasta), olio d’oliva, vini, legumi come fagioli e ceci, carne di suino, pollo e agnello, formaggi e molti tipi di pesce, come sardine, acciughe, tonno e baccalà.
La cucina tradizionale è molto variegata, spaziando dai piatti a base di pesce lungo la costa ai piatti a base di carne della parte interna. La Catalogna è infatti uno dei principali produttori di prodotti suini della Spagna
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Molte preparazioni che mescolano dolce e salato Glass Water Bottle 12 oz, e stufati con piatti a base di botifarra (salsiccia di maiale) e della caratteristica salsa picada.
Sono frequenti anche i piatti di pasta, introdotta nella gastronomia regionale dagli arabi. Solitamente viene cotta direttamente nella salsa con gli ingredienti che accompagnano il piatto. Due esempi sono la fideuada e la rossejat, entrambi piatti di pesce simili alla paella, ma con fideus, la forma di pasta più utilizzata. Sono degli spaghettini, come dei noodles o capelli d’angelo.
Il riso anche è abbondantemente presente, dal suo utilizzo in sostituzione della pasta fino alla famosa paella valenciana e sue numerose varianti.
Data l’ampia zona costiera, abbondano le ricette con pesce d’acqua salata, come le suquets, delle zuppe, a volte realizzate con riso. Vengono apprezzati tutti i tipi di pesce, ma in particolare quello azzurro, specialmente acciughe, sardine, sgombri e tonno. Come visto precedentemente, non può mancare neanche il baccalà dissalato.
I filetti si mangiano solitamente fritti, passati nella farina e a volte nell’uovo, o alla piastra. Possono anche essere preparati in terrine con verdure, normalmente con un soffritto e picada
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. Al forno si cucinano con una panatura e accompagnati da patate e pomodoro.
Alcuni esempi di piatti tipici sono:
I frutti di mare si consumano con grande frequenza e preparati in maniera semplice, in particolare in antipasti e tapas. Possono comunque accompagnare o formare parte di qualsiasi tipo di piatto, che sia a base di legumi, cereali, pesce o anche di carne. Questo perché vongole, cozze e i crostacei in generale erano più abbondanti e convenienti rispetto alla carne e al pesce. Così ad esempio, per arricchire il piatto e aggiungere proteine animali, si completavano ricette con poco pollo aggiungendo un’uguale quantità di gamberi.
Le seppie sono molto apprezzate, da sole o anche per insaporire altri piatti. A volte vengono sostituite dai calamari. Quelli più piccoli si mangiano spesso in salsa e ripieni di carne o pesce. I granchi piccoli si utilizzano frequentemente per dare sapore a zuppe e risotti. I ricci e i cetrioli di mare, inizialmente cibo dei poveri pescatori, sono tuttora molto apprezzati.
; margin: 0″>Altri progetti
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Michigan Technological University (commonly referred to as Michigan Tech, MTU, or simply Tech) is a public research university located in Houghton, Michigan, United States. Its main campus sits on 925 acres (374 ha) on a bluff overlooking Portage Lake. Michigan Tech was founded in 1885 as the first post-secondary institution in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and was created to train mining engineers to operate the local copper mines.
Science, technology, forestry and business have been added to the numerous engineering disciplines, and Michigan Tech now offers more than 130 degree programs through its five colleges and schools. US News and World Report ranked Michigan Tech’s undergraduate program 116th in the nation based on peer assessment, student selectivity, financial resources and other factors. Michigan Tech was also rated among the “Best in the Midwest” by The Princeton Review.
Michigan Tech’s athletic teams are nicknamed the Huskies and compete primarily in the NCAA Division II Great Lakes Intercollegiate Athletic Conference (GLIAC). The men’s hockey team competes in Division I as a member of the Western Collegiate Hockey Association (WCHA), and has won three national championships. The women’s basketball team were national runners-up in 2011.
Michigan Tech was founded in 1885 as the Michigan Mining School. After much agitation by Jay Abel Hubbell, the state legislature established the school to train mining engineers. Hubbell donated land for the school’s first buildings.
The school started with four faculty members and twenty-three students. It was housed in the Houghton Fire Hall from 1886 through 1889.
A few years after the school’s creation, enrollment grew to such a point that its name no longer reflected its purpose. The name was then changed to the Michigan College of Mines in 1897. This name lasted through World War I until 1925, but by this time the school had begun offering a wider variety of degrees and once again decided to change its name to the Michigan College of Mining and Technology in 1927.
By 1931 enrollment had reached nearly 600. During the next few years, due to the Great Depression, money was scarce, causing department heads and even the president of the university, William Hotchkiss, to take pay cuts.
Grover C. Dillman was president from 1935 to 1956. During this time, the school underwent many notable changes, including the construction of the Memorial Union Building and purchase of an ice rink and golf course.
Around 1948, enrollment passed 2000 students total.
In 1956, J. Robert Van Pelt became the new president of the university. He restarted many PhD programs and created a focus on research. This included the school’s first analog computation class in 1956–1957.
In the final years of his presidency, the school changed from a college to a university, changing its name a final time to Michigan Technological University. The change from the Michigan College of Mining and Technology was necessary for two reasons, according to Van Pelt. First, the college had expanded too greatly and the current name was no longer an accurate title. Also, including “mining” in the name of the college was misleading. The name “Michigan Technological University” was chosen in order to retain the nickname “Michigan Tech” that had already been in use since 1927.
Although engineering still accounts for some 59 percent of all enrollment as of fall 2010, the university now offers more than 130 degree programs.
Along with its new name, the school also gained new constitutional status in 1964. This gave responsibility for control of the university to its Board of Control rather than legislature.
Michigan School of Mines, c.1906
Michigan School of Mines, c.1906
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Chemical laboratory, c.1906
The main Michigan Tech campus is located mainly on US 41 in Houghton, Michigan. It is the safest campus in Michigan, and the third safest in the United States, according to Reader’s Digest. The main part of campus is relatively small, and can be traversed in about 10 minutes
. Many of the buildings are tall, reducing the physical size of the campus and giving the impression of being a park of high-rise office buildings. The offices of the Michigan Tech Fund are located in the First Merit Bank Building in Hancock. The Lakeshore Center in downtown Houghton houses the offices of Human Relations, Vice President for Research and other departments.
Faculty are involved in several distance education programs with clients including General Motors.
The Portage Lake Golf Course opened for play in April 1902. In 1945 the members could no longer support the needs of the course and sold it to Michigan Tech for one dollar. Since then many improvements have been made such as the addition of another nine holes in 1969. Then in 1984 the new clubhouse was constructed. In 1996 a sprinkler system was installed to modernize the course and keep it playable. The Portage Lake Golf Course is located two miles (3 km) southeast of campus.
Michigan Tech offers more than 130 undergraduate and graduate degrees in engineering, natural and physical sciences, computing, business and economics, technology, environmental studies, arts, humanities, and social sciences. The university is divided into five schools and colleges. The average overall ACT scores for incoming students is 26.4 in fall 2010, compared to 21.2 nationally
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. It currently has the highest tuition of all public universities in Michigan, exceeding both Michigan State and the University of Michigan. The College of Engineering’s environmental engineering and mechanical engineering enrollments rank in the top ten nationally and their respective graduate programs are ranked in the top 50 in the US. The electrical engineering department uses an innovative “DSP First” curriculum found at only a few leading universities.
Michigan Tech has also developed an alternative program to provide students with engineering and other design experience called the Enterprise program. Enterprises develop engineering skills by allowing students to work in business-like environments on real-world projects while completing their education. Enterprises include Nanotechnology Innovations, Hybrid Transportation, Aerospace, Blue Marble Security, Husky Game Development, Boardsports Technologies, and Wireless Communications Enterprises.
The student body consists of more than 7,000 graduate and undergraduate students (Fall 2011) and more than 450 academic faculty (Fall 2010). As is historically true of engineering institutions, female enrollment at Michigan Tech is low. The male to female student ratio was 22:1 in 1960; since 1980 it has remained around 3:1. Michigan Tech’s admissions office has enlisted female students and faculty to contact every admitted female applicant via telephone or personal letter in an attempt to increase female enrollment. In this last semester, Fall 2012, female enrollment has risen for the 6th straight year to reach an all-time high of 1,837 students. This pulls women up to 26.1%. The Fall 2010 freshman class had a ratio of 3.1:1.
Michigan Tech students are primarily from Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Illinois. The student body is approximately 75.4% European-American/Non-Hispanic, 14.2% International, 1.6% Hispanic, 1.5% percent African American, 1.0% Asian, 0.6% Native American, 1.0% Multiracial, 0.1% Pacific Islander, and the remaining 4.5% was not supplied. The university has recently focused on achieving a more diverse student body, in terms of ethnicity, gender, and areas of study. A key step in this effort was the recent introduction of several new academic majors, including psychology, biochemistry and molecular biology, cheminformatics, communication and culture studies, pharmaceutical chemistry, exercise science, sound design, audio production, and theater and entertainment technology.
Michigan Tech ranked 172nd of 600 US colleges and universities in research and development expenditures in 2007
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. Research expenditures exceeded $50 million in 2009.
Students attending Michigan Technological University have a wide range of activities to participate in, whether or not they are living in the residence halls. In addition to the various small interest groups which form throughout the year, they participate in Greek Life, Student Organizations, and the Enterprise Program; many organize and attend campus traditions, such as K-Day, the Parade of Nations, and the Winter Carnival (which also attracts alumni from across the country); furthermore, there are motivational drives to raise student activity levels and involvement in the school community, typically for those without membership in a student organization.
Michigan Tech currently recognizes more than two hundred student organizations, including:
Michigan Tech is currently host to thirteen fraternities, including three international and three local fraternities. Additionally, there are eight sororities on campus, including four local sororities.
As the school mascot is the husky (specifically, Blizzard T. Husky), the school’s sports teams are known as the “Huskies”. Michigan Tech competes in the NCAA’s Division II Great Lakes Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. The men’s hockey team competes in Division I as a member of the Western Collegiate Hockey Association. Michigan Tech owns a downhill ski/snowboard hill, Mont Ripley, just across Portage Lake from campus, and maintains extensive cross-country ski trails (used for mountain biking in summer).
The men’s hockey team competes in Division I as a member of the Western Collegiate Hockey Association (WCHA), and has won three national championships. The women’s basketball team were national runners-up in 2014-2015 season.
Michigan Tech has both an official fight song and an official Alma Mater. At most sporting events, however, both the “Engineer’s Song” and “In Heaven There Is No Beer” are played by the Huskies Pep Band, and many students consider these to be the unofficial school songs. The “Blue Skirt Waltz” is played at home ice hockey games and is called the “Copper Country Anthem.” During the song, the fans join arms and swing back and forth to the music.
There are over 68,000 Michigan Tech alumni living in all 50 states and over 100 countries. Some notable alumni include:
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