Res judicata

Res judicata (RJ) or res iudicata, also known as claim preclusion, is the Latin term for “a matter [already] judged”, and refers to either of two concepts: in both civil law and common law legal systems, a case in which there has been a final judgment and is no longer subject to appeal; and the legal doctrine meant to bar (or preclude) continued litigation of a case on same issues between the same parties. In this latter usage, the term is synonymous with “issue preclusion”.

In the case of res judicata, the matter cannot be raised again, either in the same court or in a different court. A court will use res judicata to deny reconsideration of a matter.

The doctrine of res judicata is a method of preventing injustice to the parties of a case supposedly finished, but perhaps also or mostly a way of avoiding unnecessary waste of resources in the court system. Res judicata does not merely prevent future judgments from contradicting earlier ones, but also prevents litigants from multiplying judgments, and confusion.

The principle of res judicata may be used either by a judge or a defendant.

Once a final judgment has been handed down in a lawsuit, subsequent judges who are confronted with a suit that is identical to or substantially the same as the earlier one will apply the res judicata doctrine to preserve the effect of the first judgment.

A defendant in a lawsuit may use res judicata as defense. The general rule is that a plaintiff who prosecuted an action against a defendant and obtained a valid final judgment is not able to initiate another action versus the same defendant where:

Once a bankruptcy plan is confirmed in court action, the plan is binding on all parties involved. Any question regarding the plan which could have been raised may be barred by res judicata.

The Seventh Amendment to the United States Constitution provides that no fact having been tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examinable in any court of the United States or of any state than according to the rules of law.

For res judicata to be binding, several factors must be met:

Regarding designation of the parties involved, a person may be involved in an action while filling a given office (e.g. as the agent of another), and may subsequently initiate the same action in a differing capacity (e.g. as his own agent). In that case res judicata would not be available as a defence unless the defendant could show that the differing designations were not legitimate and sufficient.

Res judicata includes two related concepts: claim preclusion and issue preclusion (also called collateral estoppel or issue estoppel), though sometimes res judicata is used more narrowly to mean only claim preclusion.

Claim preclusion bars a suit from being brought again on an event which was the subject of a previous legal cause of action that has already been finally decided between the parties or those in privity with a party.

Issue preclusion bars the relitigation of issues of fact or law that have already been necessarily determined by a judge or jury as part of an earlier case.

It is often difficult to determine which, if either, of these concepts apply to later lawsuits that are seemingly related, because many causes of action can apply to the same factual situation and vice versa. The scope of an earlier judgment is probably the most difficult question that judges must resolve in applying res judicata. Sometimes merely part of the action will be affected. For example, a single claim may be struck from a complaint, or a single factual issue may be removed from reconsideration in the new trial.

Res judicata is intended to strike a balance between competing interests. Its primary purpose is to assure an efficient judicial system. A related purpose is to create “repose” and finality.

Justice Stewart explained the need for this legal precept as follows:

Res judicata does not restrict the appeals process, which is considered a linear extension of the same lawsuit as the suit travels up (and back down) the appellate court ladder. Appeals are considered the appropriate manner by which to challenge a judgment rather than trying to start a new trial. Once the appeals process is exhausted or waived, res judicata will apply even to a judgment that is contrary to law. In states that permit a judgment to be renewed, a lawsuit to renew the judgment would not be barred by res judicata, however in states that do not permit renewal by action (as opposed to renewal by scire facias or by motion), such an action would be rejected by the courts as vexatious.

There are limited exceptions to res judicata that allow a party to attack the validity of the original judgment, even outside of appeals. These exceptions—usually called collateral attacks—are typically based on procedural or jurisdictional issues, based not on the wisdom of the earlier court’s decision but its authority or on the competence of the earlier court to issue that decision. A collateral attack is more likely to be available (and to succeed) in judicial systems with multiple jurisdictions, such as under federal governments, or when a domestic court is asked to enforce or recognise the judgment of a foreign court.

In addition, in matters involving due process, cases that appear to be res judicata may be re-litigated. An example would be the establishment of a right to counsel. People who have had liberty taken away (i.e., imprisoned) may be allowed to be re-tried with a counselor as a matter of fairness.

RJ may not apply in cases involving the England reservation. If a litigant files suit in federal court, and that court stays proceedings to allow a state court to consider the questions of state law, the litigant may inform the state court that he reserves any federal-law issues in the action for federal court. If he makes such a reservation, RJ would not bar him from returning the case to federal court at conclusion of action in state court.

There is a declaratory judgment exception to RJ. “[A] declaratory action determines only what it actually decides and does not have a claim preclusive effect on other contentions that might have been advanced.” Therefore, “a plaintiff who has lost a declaratory judgment action may also bring a subsequent action for other relief, subject to the constraint of the determinations made in the declaratory action.” This exception has been adopted in Oregon, Texas, and a number of other U.S. states.

RJ may be avoided if claimant was not afforded a full and fair opportunity to litigate the issue decided by a state court. He could file suit in a federal court to challenge the adequacy of the state’s procedures. In that case the federal suit would be against the state and not against the defendant in the first suit.

RJ may not apply if consent (or tacit agreement) is justification for splitting a claim. If plaintiff splits a claim in the course of a suit for special or justifiable reasons for doing so, a judgment in that action may not have the usual consequence of extinguishing the entire claim.

However, once a case has been appealed, finality of the appellate court’s decision is vindicated in that proceeding by giving effect in later proceedings involving the same matter, whether in the appellate or lower courts. This is the law of the case doctrine.

When a subsequent court fails to apply res judicata and renders a contradictory verdict on the same claim or issue, if a third court is faced with the same case, it will likely apply a “last in time” rule, giving effect only to the later judgment, even though the result came out differently the second time. This situation is not unheard of, as it is typically the responsibility of the parties to the suit to bring the earlier case to the judge’s attention, and the judge must decide how broadly to apply it, or whether to recognise it in the first place. See Americana Fabrics, Inc. v. L & L Textiles, Inc., 754 F.2d 1524, 1529-30 (9th Cir. 1985).

The doctrine of res judicata in nations that have a civil law legal system is much narrower in scope than in common law nations.[citation needed]

In order for a second suit to be dismissed on a motion of res judicata in a civilian jurisdiction, the trial must be identical to the first trial in the following manner: (1) identical parties, (2) identical theories of recovery, and (3) identical demands in both trials. In other words, the issue preclusion or collateral estoppel found in the common law doctrine of res judicata is not present in the civilian doctrine. In addition if all else is equal between the two cases, minus the relief sought, there will be no dismissal based on res judicata in a civil law jurisdiction.[citation needed]

In civil law countries adopting German law concept, such as Japan and Taiwan, the Res judicata (Rechtskraft) is in close connection with the cause of action (Streitgegenstand). However, the theory of cause of action itself is different in Germany and Japan and Taiwan, therefore the scope of Res judicata are different in the above countries.

A common use of the res judicata principle is to preclude plaintiffs after a class action suit has been settled even on plaintiffs who were not part of the original action because they could have joined that original action.

Arguably, res judicata is a general principle of international law under Article 38 (1)(c) of the International Court of Justice Statute. “The Court, whose function is to decide in accordance with international law such disputes as are submitted to it, shall apply: … c. the general principles of law recognized by civilized nations”.[clarification needed]

Similar provisions are also found in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and Article 4 of Protocol 7 of the European Convention on Human Rights. However, in the two said conventions, the application of res judicata is restricted to criminal proceedings only. In the European Convention, reopening of a concluded criminal proceedings is possible if –

which could affect the outcome of the case.


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Karczewie

Karczewie – wieś w Polsce położona w województwie zachodniopomorskim, w powiecie gryfickim, w gminie Płoty.

W latach 1975–1998 miejscowość administracyjnie należała do województwa szczecińskiego.

W 2002 roku wieś liczyła 21 mieszkalnych budynków, w nich 21 mieszkań ogółem, z nich 21 zamieszkane stale. Z 21 mieszkań zamieszkanych 12 mieszkań wybudowany między 1918 a 1944 rokiem, 6 — między 1945 a 1970, 2 — między 1971 a 1978 i 1 — między 1989 a 2002 łącznie z będącymi w budowie.

Od 94 osób 27 było w wieku przedprodukcyjnym, 29 — w wieku produkcyjnym mobilnym, 22 — w wieku produkcyjnym niemobilnym, 16 — w wieku poprodukcyjnym. Od 76 osób w wieku 13 lat i więcej 4 miełi wykształcenie wyższe, 13 — średnie, 13 — zasadnicze zawodowe, 41 — podstawowe ukończone i 5 — podstawowe nieukończone lub bez wykształcenia.

W 2011 roku w miejscowośći żyło 101 osób, z nich 45 mężczyźn i 56 kobiet; 17 było w wieku przedprodukcyjnym, 43 — w wieku produkcyjnym mobilnym, 26 — w wieku produkcyjnym niemobilnym, 15 — w wieku poprodukcyjnym.

Karczewiec


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Ludowa Spółdzielnia Wydawnicza

Ludowa Spółdzielnia Wydawnicza (LSW) est une maison d’édition polonaise créée en 1949 par fusion de deux maisons créées au lendemain de la guerre dans la mouvance des mouvements coopératifs paysans et du parti paysan polonais (parti paysan unifié pendant la période communiste).

Depuis 2006, LSW est l’un des acteurs du prix littéraire Jan Twardowski (Nagroda Literacka LSW im. ks. Jana Twardowskiego), décerné à Pruszków, où le père Jan Twardowski avait été jeune vicaire au début de sa carrière poétique et pastorale.

Le catalogue initialement centré sur des auteurs polonais s’est élargi au cours des dernières années à des ouvrages traduits.

Dans la bibliothèque des poètes, sont parues des œuvres de :

Parmi les auteurs réédités : Jan Twardowski, Karol Wojtyła, Stanisław Mikołajczyk, Wincenty Witos ainsi que des classiques comme François Villon, Joseph Conrad, Adam Mickiewicz, Władysław St. Reymont, etc.

Selon le site de l’éditeur, le total des tirages dépasse 75 000 000 d’exemplaires


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Ben Cross

Harry Bernard Cross (born 16 December 1947), known professionally as Ben Cross, is an English stage and film actor, best known for his portrayal of the British Olympic athlete Harold Abrahams in the 1981 film Chariots of Fire and as Sarek in the 2009 reboot film Star Trek.

Cross was born Harry Bernard Cross, in London, to a working class Catholic family, with Irish ancestry. His mother was a cleaning woman and his father a doorman and nurse.

Cross was educated at Bishop Thomas Grant Secondary Modern School in Streatham, South London.

Cross initially worked in various jobs including work as a window cleaner, waiter and joiner. He was master carpenter for the Welsh National Opera and property master at the Alexandra Theatre in Birmingham.

In 1970 at the age of 22, he was accepted into London’s Royal Academy of Dramatic Arts (RADA) – the alma mater of actors such as John Gielgud, Glenda Jackson and Anthony Hopkins, but later expressed little interest in pursuing the classical route. He also appeared as a CI5 agent in an episode of The Professionals (‘Black Out’ S4E2)

After graduation from RADA, Cross performed in several stage plays at Duke’s Playhouse where he was seen in Macbeth, The Importance of Being Earnest and Arthur Miller’s Death of a Salesman. He then joined the Prospect Theatre Company and played roles in Pericles, Twelfth Night, and Royal Hunt of the Sun. Cross also joined the cast of the immensely popular musical Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat and played leading roles in Sir Peter Shaffer’s Equus, Mind Your Head and the musical Irma La Douce – all at Leicester’s Haymarket Theatre.

Cross’s first big screen film appearance came in 1976 when he went on location to Deventer, Netherlands, to play Trooper Binns in Joseph E. Levine’s World War II epic A Bridge Too Far which starred an international cast, including Dirk Bogarde, Sean Connery, Michael Caine and James Caan.

In 1977, Cross became a member of the Royal Shakespeare Company and performed in the premier of Privates on Parade as “Kevin Cartwright” and played Rover in a revival of a Restoration play titled Wild Oats. Cross’s path to international stardom began in 1978 with his performance in the play Chicago in which he played Billy Flynn, the slick lawyer of murderess Roxie Hart.

During Cross’s performance in Chicago, he was recognised and recommended for a leading role in the multiple Oscar-winning Chariots of Fire. For their performances in the film, Cross and his co-star Ian Charleson both won “Most Promising Artiste of 1981” awards from the Variety Club Awards in February 1982.

Cross’s starring role in Chariots of Fire has been credited with continuing a transatlantic trend in elegant young English actors that had been set by Jeremy Irons in Brideshead Revisited, and was followed by Rupert Everett in Dance with a Stranger, Rupert Graves in A Room With a View, and Hugh Grant in Maurice.

Cross followed up Chariots of Fire with performances as a Scottish physician, Dr Andrew Mason, struggling with the politics of the British medical system during the 1920s, in The Citadel, a 10-part BBC dramatisation of A.J. Cronin’s novel, and as Ashton (Ash) Pelham-Martyn, a British cavalry officer torn between two cultures in the ITV miniseries The Far Pavilions.

In 1982, the U.S. union Actors’ Equity, in a landmark reversal of a previous ruling, allowed Cross to appear in John Guare’s off-Broadway play Lydie Breeze. The decision was tied to a joint effort by Actors’ Equity, the League of New York Theatres and the British union Equity to allow British and U.S. actors unrestricted opportunities to work in both countries. The agreement eventually led to regular equal exchange agreements for equivalent acting jobs between London and New York.

During the 1984 Summer Olympic Games, Cross appeared in a commercial for American Express (‘Don’t leave home without it’) with the 87-year-old Jackson Scholz, a sprinter for the 1924 American Olympic team whose character was featured in the film Chariots of Fire. When Cross says something about beating Scholz, the latter remarks, “You didn’t beat me!” with mock indignation. Proving he is ‘still pretty fast’, Scholz beats Cross to the draw in picking up the tab with his credit card.

He subsequently replaced James Garner as the featured actor endorsing the Polaroid Spectra camera in 1986. Cross was also featured in GQ Magazine as one of the annual “Manstyle” winners in January, 1985 followed by a featured photo shoot in March, 1985.

In 1985, he played Barney Greenwald in a hit revival of Herman Wouk’s courtroom drama The Caine Mutiny Court-Martial at the Queen’s Theatre, London.

In a 1985 interview the actor admitted he preferred American roles because of their emotionalism, saying of English acting: ‘Over here, people hide behind mannerism and technique and don’t come up with any soul. American actors are much freer with the emotions. It’s pretty hard in Europe not to have experience of Americans because we’re exposed to a lot of American product.’ Cross also said that he was sympathetic to the American dream of success: ‘I am ambitious. There’s no point of being ashamed of the fact that one has ambitions. Despite what a lot of people think in our profession, you can have ambitions and still turn in good work and still earn a living. There’s no clash there.’ Cross expressed the hope that his reputation would ‘span the Atlantic,’ and that those in the industry would not ignore him because he did not live in Los Angeles or New York City. ‘A prospective director would have to convince me that I could bring something new, fresh and exciting to a classical part that hundreds of other people have played,’ he said.

Over the years, Cross has played Iraqi pilot Munir Redfa blackmailed into flying a MiG from Iraq to Israel in the 1988 HBO spy film Steal the Sky, and in Ian Sharp’s 1989 NBC-TV miniseries, Twist of Fate, a German Nazi SS colonel and war criminal Helmut von Schraeder, who has his face and voice surgically changed to pose as a Jew in a concentration camp to avoid post-war capture and war crime punishment by the approaching Allies, then after his liberation at the war’s end by twist of fate becomes a Zionist and ends up becoming one of the state of Israel’s founders and military generals, a vampire in the 1989 USA Network film Nightlife, another vampire, Barnabas Collins, in the 1991 MGM miniseries remake of the cult classic TV soap opera, Dark Shadows, Sir Harold Pearson in the 1994 Italian production “Caro Dolce Amore (Honey Sweet Love)”, Solomon in the 1997 Trimark Pictures production Solomon and Captain Nemo in the 1997 CBS film 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea.

Cross played Ikey Solomon in the Australian production The Potato Factory in 2000. In 2005, Cross, an anti-death penalty campaigner, starred as a death-row prisoner in Bruce Graham’s play Coyote on a Fence, at the Duchess Theatre. He played Rudolf Hess in the 2006 BBC production Nuremberg: Nazis on Trial.

In November 2007, Cross was cast in the role of Sarek, in the then-new Star Trek film directed and produced by J.J. Abrams. Cross spoke to Star Trek magazine following the film’s release, saying, ‘My agent put me forward for Star Trek, and he sent a couple of films to J.J. I’m sure he was too busy to watch the whole of Species, but when we were on the set, he mentioned to me that there was one particular shot in it where I turned to the camera, and in that moment, it came to him how perfect it would be for me to play Sarek.’ In order to prepare for the role, Cross drew on his experience as a parent as well as Sarek’s previous on-screen appearances. Having been present when his daughter was born, he was able to ‘call on all sorts of things’ in the scene where Amanda has baby Spock, a scene which did not make it into the theatrical cut of the film. While he found the emotionless trait of a Vulcan a challenge to play, he found the father/son relationship between Sarek and Spock easier to play. ‘As Sarek, I had to be true to the Vulcan cultural ethic, which in the beginning, I found very difficult. I got a lot of help with that from J.J. Dealing with the adult Spock (played by Zachary Quinto) was a much more mature relationship, and I found the father/son aspect one of the easier things to play.’

In 2012, Cross was cast as Rabbit, the main antagonist on the Cinemax original series Banshee. Rabbit is “a ruthless Ukrainian gangster who has been hunting down two of his former top thieves for 15 years.”

Cross is a director, writer and musician. He has written music, screenplays and articles for English-language publications and has written the lyrics for an album with Bulgarian singer Vasil Petrov, which was released in late 2007. He sang two Sinatra songs with Petrov in the Apollonia Festival at the Black Sea in September 2007.

Among his works is the musical Rage about Ruth Ellis, which was performed in the London area. He starred in it and played the part of the hangman.

Cross’s first single as a lyricist was released by Polydor Records in the late 1970s and was titled Mickey Moonshine. The nom de guerre for the performance had occurred to Ben when he recalled an earlier involvement with the music industry as a session singer for Decca between 1972 and 1974. At this time, he had recorded a song called ‘Name it, You Got it’, which achieved some play on the British Northern soul scene. Other works include The Best We’ve Ever Had and Nearly Midnight, both written by Cross and directed by his son Theo.

In addition, the original soundtrack for Nearly Midnight was written, produced and performed by his daughter Lauren. These works were performed in Edinburgh in 2002 and 2003 respectively. Square One, directed by Cross, was performed at the Etcetera Theatre in London in 2004.

Cross has lived in London, Los Angeles, New York City, southern Spain, Vienna, and most recently,[when?] Sofia, Bulgaria.

He has been married three times: first to Penny, from 1977 to 1992, with whom he has two children; then to Michelle until 2005, and on 18 August 2018 wearing Bulgarian folk dress, a traditional wedding in front of many thousands spectators during the folklore festival in Zheravna, Bulgaria to the Bulgarian Deyana. In October 2014 he became a grandfather.


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The Sanctuary (Derby)

The Sanctuary is a bird and wildlife sanctuary and designated local nature reserve (LNR) located on Pride Park in the city of Derby, England. It is on a twelve hectare site on the west bank of the River Derwent, adjacent to Pride Park Stadium and Derby Arena. Controversial plans by the local council owners to build a closed circuit cycle race track over part of the local nature reserve would have set a national precedent, potentially exposing all LNRs in England to harmful development., but were withdrawn in 2014 following widespread opposition and in the face of legal action and a judicial review of the planning decision.

Heavily contaminated from its former use as a gas works, the land had been designated a “Site of Interest for Nature Conservation” in the master plan by Derby City Council. Part of the site was used in 2003 to safely encapsulate contaminated material removed from other areas of Pride Park, but in 2001 the site was found to be home to ground nesting birds and passage migrants and a plan was created to protect their grassland habitat and to encourage their nesting by creating ‘the city’s first bird reserve’.

The Sanctuary Bird and Wildlife Reserve was formally launched in July 2004 by the Secretary of State for the Environment, Margaret Beckett MP, alongside the Mayor of Derby. The site is now home to breeding skylarks, reed buntings and lapwings, all birds considered significant under the UK Biodiversity Action Plan, with additional habitat created for breeding sand martins and little ringed plovers.

The Sanctuary is not an open access area, but four viewing points are provided on the perimeter for the public. In 2005 The Sanctuary received both a Green Apple Award, and a Green Infrastructure Award from the East Midlands Regional Assembly. Facilities include ramped access for disabled people. In 2006 it was designated a Local Nature Reserve.

In February 2005 a Dartford warbler spent six weeks at The Sanctuary, attracting large numbers of bird watchers. It had not been seen in Derbyshire since a pair were shot at Melbourne Common in the winter of 1840.

In March 2012, Derby City Council approved plans to build a velodrome (later called Derby Arena) on a former landfill site adjacent to The Sanctuary. In connection with the development, it subsequently also proposed to build an outdoor closed circuit cycle race track on part of the local nature reserve, a plan that was opposed by a coalition of 15 local wildlife groups including the Derbyshire Ornithological Society and Derbyshire Wildlife Trust.

Concerns were raised in local and national newspapers that the council’s actions would ‘set a dangerous national precedent’ with implications for all of the country’s designated Local Nature Reserves, exposing them to development pressures. Simon Barnes, chief sportswriter at The Times, described the actions as ‘possibly illegal’ and described British Cycling’s support for the closed circuit cycle track as akin to a “cyclist running a red light.”’. One conservation organisation took out judicial review proceedings against Derby City Council, initially stating:

This would be the first case in the country where a Local Authority, having given one of its own wildlife sites Local Nature Reserve status, then goes on to destroy a significant part of it without mitigation. We fear LNRs in other regions could then also be seen as fair game for all sorts of inappropriate development.

Television naturalist Chris Packham described Derby council’s plans as “a vile act of wanton vandalism”. However a number of voices were raised which expressed support for development of a closed circuit cycle track on top of the bird reserve. During the controversy, the breeding success of little ringed plover at The Sanctuary was publicly announced in July 2013.

Derby City Council approved the cycle track in February 2014. Work on the site was halted by court order later that month, following legal action by Derbyshire Wildlife Trust and initiation of judicial review proceedings. As a result, the council decided to scrap their plans in March 2014, citing that it was ‘not in taxpayers’ interests to continue’, later revealing it had spent £147,000 on the aborted plans. A year after construction work had halted, Derby council announced in 2015 that it could not afford to repair the damage it had done to the bird reserve.


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Cerro El Tecolote (kulle i Mexiko, Sonora, Sahuaripa)

Cerro El Tecolote är en kulle i Mexiko. Den ligger i kommunen Sahuaripa och delstaten Sonora, i den nordvästra delen av landet, 1 500 km nordväst om huvudstaden Mexico City. Toppen på Cerro El Tecolote är 685 meter över havet.

Terrängen runt Cerro El Tecolote är huvudsakligen kuperad, men åt nordost är den bergig. Den högsta punkten i närheten är Cerro Alamo, 1 490 meter över havet, 8,4 km nordost om Cerro El Tecolote. Trakten runt Cerro El Tecolote är nära nog obefolkad, med mindre än två invånare per kvadratkilometer. Närmaste större samhälle är Sahuaripa, 15,0 km söder om Cerro El Tecolote. I omgivningarna runt Cerro El Tecolote växer huvudsakligen savannskog.

Årsmedeltemperaturen i trakten är 26 °C. Den varmaste månaden är juni, då medeltemperaturen är 38 °C, och den kallaste är januari, med 15 °C. Genomsnittlig årsnederbörd är 807 millimeter. Den regnigaste månaden är juli, med i genomsnitt 278 mm nederbörd, och den torraste är april, med 3 mm nederbörd.


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Le Bal du gouverneur

Vanessa Wagner
Kristin Scott Thomas

Pour plus de détails, voir Fiche technique et Distribution

Le Bal du gouverneur est un film français réalisé et adapté par Marie-France Pisier de son roman homonyme publié en 1984 aux éditions Grasset & Fasquelle, produit en 1988 et sorti en 1990.

En 1957, alors que la Nouvelle-Calédonie doit passer du statut de colonie à celui de territoire d’outre-mer et que donc est organisé le tout dernier « bal du gouverneur », la jeune Théa Forestier (Vanessa Wagner), fille du sous-gouverneur Charles Forestier (Didier Flamand) et de son épouse Marie (Kristin Scott Thomas), doit faire face à des évènements qui vont la faire passer de l’adolescence à l’âge adulte. Jeune fille effrontée, entretenant des relations fortes avec sa meilleure amie Isabelle (Edwige Navarro) qu’elle terrorise et son jeune frère Benoît (Renaud Ménager) qu’elle martyrise et défend à la fois, elle mène alors une vie insouciante dans cette colonie tropicale. Mais tout se transforme rapidement. Ses parents s’éloignent l’un de l’autre en raison de la relation ambigüe que Marie entretient avec le Dr Michel Royan (Laurent Grévill), médecin anti-conformiste et défenseur à la fois des Kanaks et des ouvriers de l’usine de la Société « Le Nickel ». Mais surtout, elle apprend qu’Isabelle lui a caché qu’elle allait bientôt quitter l’île en raison de la mutation de son père.


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Česká zbrojovka Uherský Brod

Česká zbrojovka Uherský Brod (Че́ска збройо́вка У́герски-Брод) — частная оружейная компания в Чехии.

Ческа Збройовка Угерски-Брод основана 27 июля 1936 как филиал оружейной фирмы Ческа збройовка Страконице в небольшом моравском городке Угерски-Брод в Чехословакии, ныне Чехия. Такое решение было принято в свете роста реваншистских настроений в Германии после Первой мировой войны, особенно после того того, как Адольф Гитлер провёл ремилитаризацию Рейнской демилитаризованной зоны. Завод был построен в течение 16 недель.

Хотя фабрика располагалась в Угерски-Броде, после Второй мировой войны, всё оружие маркировалось BRNO по требованию государственных органов осуществлявших управление оборонным комплексом.

На протяжении холодной войны, ČZUB производила широкий спектр боевого оружия, включая автомат Sa vz. 58, пистолет-пулемёт Šcorpion vz. 61 и особенно коммерчески успешное семейство пистолетов CZ 75, принёсшее заводу мировую славу. В 1992 году ČZUB стал частным предприятием. В 1997 году открыт филиал в США под наименованием CZ-USA.

Ныне на заводе работает 1800+ инженеров, мастеров и рабочих, что делает его одним из крупнейших производителей огнестрельного оружия в мире. Компания произвела более 260 000 единиц оружия только в 2014 году.


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John Michael Bishop

John Michael Bishop (York, 22 febbraio 1936) è un biologo statunitense, premio Nobel per la medicina nel 1989. Ha studiato all’Università di Harvard, ma ha scelto San Francisco come propria città di residenza; prima di passare all’Università della California, San Francisco, nel 1968, ha lavorato in America (ai National Institutes of Health) e in Europa, ad Amburgo. È stato cancelliere dell’Università della California, San Francisco.

Unitamente ad H. E. Varmus, con cui ha svolto gran parte della sua attività di ricercatore, nel 1989 ha ricevuto il Premio Nobel per la medicina e la fisiologia per la scoperta dei proto-oncogeni: si tratta di geni contenuti nel patrimonio ereditario che, in seguito a sollecitazioni di agenti esterni, possono causare il cancro impartendo alle cellule dell’organismo l’ordine di riprodursi in modo anomalo e incontrollato.

Altri progetti


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Sjølpollinering

Sjølpollinering er når en plantes pollen havner på et arr i det samme planteindividet. Sjølpollinering kan føre til sjølbefruktning, men det er ingen automatikk i dette: mange planter har genetiske mekanismer som hindrer sjølbefruktning – de er sjølinkompatible. Når de to begrepene allikevel ofte brukes om hverandre, kan det ha sammenheng med at de mange tilpasningene planter har evolvert for å unngå de skadelige effektene av sjølbefruktning, først og fremst virker for å hindre sjølpollinering.

Sjølpollinering kan deles i innen-blomst sjølpollinering og nabopollinering (geitonogami). I det første tilfellet skjer pollenoverføringa innen samme blomst, mens det ved nabopollinering skjer en pollenoverføring fra en blomst på ett individ til en annen blomst på det samme individet. Pollenoverføring innen en og samme blomst kan ofte skje uten assistanse av noen pollinator, men pollinatorer kan bidra til slik sjølpollinering og en blomst kan dermed bli sjølpollinert og krysspollinert av et og samme dyrs besøk (forutsatt at insektet har besøkt en artsfrende av planta tidligere). Nabopollinering forutsetter nesten alltid bidrag av en pollinator, unntaket er blomsterstander som er så tette at automatisk pollenoverføring mellom ulike blomster er fysisk mulig (eks. korgplantefamilien, skjermplantefamilien).

En stor del av de, tildels, fantastiske tilpasningene som finnes i blomstene hos blomsterplantene kan tilskrives forhold som har med å forhindre sjølpollinering. Evolusjonen av dette er drevet av det faktum at sjølpollinering med derpå følgende sjølbefruktning gir innavla avkom og de negative effektene av innavl (innavlsdepresjon) er nærmest universelle i planteriket (riktignok i varierende grad fra art til art).


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