A chauffeur is a person employed to drive a passenger motor vehicle, especially a luxury vehicle such as a large sedan or limousine. A woman employed to drive a passenger motor vehicle is a chauffeuse.
Originally, such drivers were often personal employees of the vehicle owner, but now in many cases specialist chauffeur service companies or individual drivers provide both driver and vehicle for hire, although there are service companies that just provide the driver.
The term chauffeur comes from the French term for stoker because the earliest automobiles, like their railroad and sea vessel counterparts, were steam-powered and required the driver to stoke the engine. Early petrol/gasoline-powered motor cars, before the advent of electric ignition, were ignited by ‘hot tubes’ in the cylinder head which had to be pre-heated before the engine would start. Hence the term chauffeur which, in this context, means something like “heater-upper”. The chauffeur would prime the hot tubes at the start of a journey, after which the natural compression cycle of the engine would keep them at the correct temperature. The chauffeur also maintained the car, including routine maintenance and cleaning, and had to be a skilled mechanic to deal with breakdowns and tyre punctures en route, which were very common in the earliest years of the automobile.
Only the very wealthy could afford the first automobiles, and they generally employed chauffeurs rather than driving themselves. A 1906 article in The New York Times reported that “…the chauffeur problem to-day is one of the most serious that the automobilist has to deal with.”, and complained that “…young men of no particular ability, who have been earning from $10 to $12 a week, are suddenly elevated to salaried positions paying from $25 to $50…” and recommended the re-training of existing coach drivers.
While the term may refer to anybody who drives for a living, it usually implies a driver of an elegant passenger vehicle such as a horse-drawn carriage football uniforms for sale, luxury sedan, motor coach, or especially a limousine; those who operate buses or non-passenger vehicles are generally referred to as “drivers”. In some countries, particularly developing nations where a ready supply of labor ensures that even the middle classes can afford domestic staff and among the wealthy, the chauffeur may simply be called the “driver”.
People currently sometimes employ chauffeurs full-time to drive themselves in their own personal vehicles, yet there are also professional services offering limousines or rental cars driven by chauffeurs. This is very similar to but more luxurious than taking a taxicab. A variety of benefits are cited for using chauffeurs, including convenience, productivity and time savings, and driving safety for businesspeople and seniors. Insurance costs for luxury vehicles are often lower if the designated driver is a chauffeur.
The legal requirements to be a chauffeur vary depending on the local jurisdiction and class of vehicle. In some cases, a simple permit is all that is required football uniforms for sale, but in others an additional professional license with certain minimum standards in areas such as: age, health, driving experience, criminal record, local geographic knowledge, training attended.
In addition to the minimum legal requirements, limousine companies often require their chauffeurs to undergo specific extra training. These courses may involve evasive driving or defensive driving techniques, the proper methods to ensure safety in the most extreme conditions such as inclement weather, a flat tire at high speeds, or other exterior influences for loss of vehicular control, etc. Most companies also have their own courses as to what they expect from their chauffeurs. Chauffeurs may be taught proper etiquette for use when they are in presence of their clientele. They may also be trained for services to the client beyond the car itself, such as for a personal valet or bodyguard. Many companies and local licensing agencies currently require random drug screening – in the United States this was especially the case after professional ice hockey player Vladimir Konstantinov’s career-ending injuries when his recently hired chauffeur, Richard Gnida, already serving a license suspension for drunken driving, lost control of their limousine and crashed, seriously injuring Konstantinov and his other passengers.
In many places (or at times in the past), proper physical presence is presented by the chauffeur at all times. This usually includes a well-groomed individual, conservatively dressed in a clean and crisply pressed black or dark suit or tuxedo, dress shirt, and appropriately matching tie, with black leather gloves and freshly polished matching footwear. In some areas, such as Japan, white gloves are the norm. Some companies have complete uniforms for their chauffeurs, and some require that hats be worn as part of the uniform. Some companies do not keep strictly to this standard, and there is wide variation globally throughout the transportation industry.
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The University of Jaffna (Tamil: யாழ்ப்பாணப் பல்கலைக்கழகம், translit. Yāḻppāṇap Palkalaikkaḻakam; Sinhalese: යාපනය විශ්වවිද්යාලය, Yāpanaya Viśvavidyālaya; abbreviated UoJ) is a public university in the city of Jaffna in Sri Lanka. Established in 1974 as the sixth campus of the University of Sri Lanka, it became an independent, autonomous university in 1979. Like all public universities in Sri Lanka, UoJ receives the bulk of its funding from the University Grants Commission (UGC), part of the Ministry of Higher Education in Colombo. The UGC and the central government therefore exert a great deal of control over the university.
UoJ has two campuses — the main campus in Thirunelvely in Jaffna and a second campus in Vavuniya. It also has facilities in Ariviyal Nagar near Kilinochchi, Kaithady and Maruthanarmadam near Chunnakam. It has ten faculties (Agriculture, Applied Science, Arts, Business Studies, Engineering, Graduate Studies, Management Studies & Commerce, Medicine, Science and Technology) and thirteen other academic units/centres. The university offers undergraduate and postgraduate courses that award various degrees.
The university had 7,972 students and 1,342 employees in 2016. It is the seventh largest university in Sri Lanka in student numbers. In 2015/16 the university admitted 3,009 undergraduates. UoJ had a recurrent budget of Rs. 2.2 billion and a capital budget of Rs. 1.2 billion in 2016. Its income in 2016 was Rs. 3.5 billion of which Rs. 3.4 billion (98%) was grant from the central government in Colombo.
The chancellor and vice-chancellor are professors S. Pathmanathan and R. Vigneswaran respectively. UoJ is a member of the Association of Commonwealth Universities.
On 15 July 1974 Badi-ud-din Mahmud, Minister of Education and Pro-Chancellor of the University of Sri Lanka, declared that the sixth campus of the University of Sri Lanka would be established in Jaffna. K. Kailasapathy, head of the Department of Tamil and Hindu studies of the Vidyalankara campus of the University of Sri Lanka, was appointed as the first president of the Jaffna campus. Extraordinary gazette no. 121/15 was published on 25 July 1974 establishing the Jaffna Campus. The new campus started functioning on 1 August 1974 at the Parameswara College premises in Thirunelvely some 4 km north of Jaffna city centre. Parameswara College had been founded in 1921 by P. Ramanathan.
The campus had approval for three faculties (Humanities, Law and Science) and one department (Physical Education). Only the Humanities and Science faculties were functioning when the campus started taking students in October 1974. The Faculty of Humanities and campus administration were based at Thirunelvely. The Faculty of Science was based at the undergraduate section of Jaffna College, Vaddukoddai which had been taken over by the government on 13 August 1974.
The Faculty of Humanities was renamed Faculty of Arts in 1975. The Ramanathan Academy of Fine Arts, based at Ramanathan College in Maruthanarmadam, was taken over by the Jaffna Campus on 1 December 1975. The Faculty of Science moved to Thirunelvely in June 1978 and the Jaffna College site was returned to its former owners the Jaffna Diocese of the Church of South India. The Faculty of Medicine was established on 7 August 1978 with its base at the Ayurvedic Hospital in Kaithady.
The Universities Act No. 16 of 1978 radically altered university education in Sri Lanka. The University of Sri Lanka was abolished and its six campuses (Colombo, Peradeniya, Sri Jayewardenepura, Kelaniya, Moratuwa and Jaffna) were each elevated to independent, autonomous universities. A gazette was issued on 22 December 1978 establishing the University of Jaffna with effect from 1 January 1979.
The Faculty of Medicine was shifted to Thirunelvely in 1981. Construction of a new library, student centre and arts block began in 1981 but were halted due to the civil war. The Siddha section of the Institute of Indigenous Medicine was moved from the University of Colombo to the University of Jaffna in July 1984. The partially completed library started functioning in 1986.
The escalation of hostilities between the Indian Peace Keeping Force and the rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam in late 1987 severely affected the university. UoJ buildings and equipment suffered extensive damage. Students and academic/non-academic staff were killed. During the late 1980s/early 1990s, when most of the Jaffna peninsula including Jaffna city was under LTTE control, the university suffered frequent aerial bombings, shortage of essential goods due to the economic blockade, shortage of academic staff many of whom had fled abroad and a general disturbance of academic life due the frequent curfews.
The university was given approval in 1985 to establish a Faculty of Agriculture in Kilinochchi. Construction of a new building in Kilinochchi began in 1986 but was abandoned in 1987 due to the civil war. In October 1989 approval was given to establish a Faculty of Engineering in Kilinochchi, but the civil war prevented this. The Faculty of Agriculture started functioning in December 1990 at buildings belonging to the Regional Agriculture Research and Development Centre and the District Training Centre of Department of Agriculture in Kilinochchi.
In October 1995, as the Sri Lankan military launched a military offensive to recapture the Jaffna peninsula, virtually the entire population of the Valikamam region fled to other parts of the peninsula and the Vanni. The university administration was transferred to the Faculty of Agriculture in Kilinochchi. Most of the equipment and furniture at Thirunelvely was lost during the absence. The university’s administration returned to Thirunelvely in 1996 after the military had recaptured most of the peninsula including Jaffna city. The escalation of hostilities in the Vanni in 1996 caused severe disruption to the Faculty of Agriculture which was forced to move several times. The University Council decided to move the faculty. In August 1997 studies re-commenced at the faculty’s new premises in Jaffna.
A gazette was issued on 26 March 1997 upgrading the Northern Province Affiliated University College (NPAUC) in Vavuniya to the Vavuniya campus of the University of Jaffna. The NPAUC was established in 1991 to offer courses in mathematical sciences, accountancy and finance. The Vavuniya Campus had two faculties – Applied Science and Business Studies – each with two departments. In 1999 the Faculty of Management Studies and Commerce was created from parts of the Faculty of Arts. The Faculty of Graduate Studies was created in the same year.
Construction of a new building for the Faculty of Agriculture at Ariviyal Nagar, Kilinochchi began after the end of the civil war in 2009. The faculty expects to relocate to Ariviyal Nagar in 2013. In April 2011 the university’s senate approved the establishment of a Faculty of Engineering in Kilinochchi next to the Faculty of Agriculture. The first batch of students are expected to be admitted in September 2012.
The Faculty of Technology was established in 2016. The faculty is expected to admit its first students towards the end of 2016. It will be located near the Faculty of Agriculture and Faculty of Engineering in Kilinochchi.
The university is based at five sites: Thirunelvely, Vavuniya, Ariviyal Nagar, Kaithady and Maruthanarmadam.
The Thirunelvely campus is split into two. The main site off Ramanathan Road contains three faculties – Arts, Management Studies & Commerce and Science – as well as the main administrative departments, library and student complex. The second site off Adiyapatham Road contains the Medicine faculty. The Faculty of Graduate Studies is based in a rented house on Ramanathan Road opposite the university.
The Vavuniya campus is based at several sites in the town as well as in the outskirts of Vavuniya. The campus plans move all its functions to the spacious Pambaimadhu site on the Mannar-Vavuniya Road. This site houses the Faculty of Business Studies and student hostels. The Faculty of Applied Science is in Vavuniya.
The faculties of Agriculture, Engineering and Technology are based at Ariviyal Nagar near Murukandy, south of Kilinochchi.
The Ramanathan Academy of Fine Arts is in Marthanamadam and the Siddha Medicine Unit is in Kaithady.
The chancellor is professor S. Pathmanathan. The vice-chancellor is professor R. Vigneswaran who took office on 24 April 2017. The current rector of the Vavuniya Campus is T. Mangaleswaran. The most senior non-academic staff is registrar V. Kandeepan rug shaver.
The University of Jaffna has ten faculties and thirteen other academic units/centres:
The University of Jaffna started campaigning for the establishment of a Faculty of Agriculture at the university in 1981. The University Grants Commission gave its approval in 1985. The town of Kilinochchi was identified as a suitable location for the new faculty and construction of a new building began in 1986. Construction was abandoned in 1987 due to the civil war. The new faculty started functioning in December 1990 at buildings belonging to the Regional Agriculture Research and Development Centre (RARDC) and the District Training Centre of Department of Agriculture in Kilinochchi.
The escalation of hostilities in the Vanni in 1996 caused severe disruption to the faculty which was forced to move several times. The University Council decided to move the faculty to Jaffna and in August 1997 studies re-commenced at the faculty’s new premises in Jaffna.
Construction of a new building for the faculty at Ariviyal Nagar, Kilinochch began after the end of the civil war in 2009. The faculty expects to relocate to Ariviyal Nagar in 2013.
The faculty offers undergraduate courses which lead to Bachelor of Science in Agriculture (B.Sc.(Agr.)) degrees.
The faculty is currently divided into six departments:
The faculty’s current dean and assistant registrar are T. Mikunthan and T. Piranavamalar respectively. The faculty had 264 undergraduate students and 48 academic staff (23 permanent, 25 temporary) in 2016.
The Faculty of Applied Sciences was established when the Vavuniya Campus of the University of Jaffna was created in April 1997.
The faculty offers undergraduate courses which lead to Bachelor of Information and Communication Technology (B.I.C.T.) and Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) degrees.
The faculty is currently divided into two departments:
The faculty’s current dean and assistant registrar are S. Kuhanesan and Iyathurai Thayaparan respectively. The faculty had 372 undergraduate students and 44 academic staff (26 permanent, 18 temporary) in 2016 glass voss water bottle.
The Jaffna Campus of the University of Sri Lanka started functioning in October 1974 with two faculties: Faculty of Humanities and Faculty of Science. The Faculty of Humanities was based at Parameshwara College in Thirunelveli. K. Indrapala, senior lecturer in history at the Peradeniya Campus of the University of Sri Lanka, was appointed the first Dean of the Faculty of Humanities. The faculty had four departments: Hindu Civilization, History, Sinhala and Tamil.
The faculty was renamed as the Faculty of Arts in 1975. The Ramanathan Academy of Fine Arts (RAFA) was taken over by the University of Sri Lanka in 1975 and placed under the Faculty of Arts. RAFA had two departments: Dance and Music. Eight new departments were created: Sanskrit (1975), Education (1980), Language and Cultural Studies (1981), Fine Arts (1982), Economics, Geography, Islamic Civilization and Philosophy.
Following the Black July riots the Institute of Indigenous Medicine affiliated to the University of Colombo was transferred to the University of Jaffna as a department under the Faculty of Arts in 1984. The Department of Language and Cultural Studies was split into the Department of Linguistics and English and Department of Christian and Islamic Civilization in 1989. The Department of Siddha Medicine was removed from the faculty in October 1993 and now functions directly under the control of the vice chancellor. The Department of Political Science and Sociology was created in July 1998 from the Department of Economics. The Department of Law was created in May 2005. The Department of Political Science and Sociology was split into the Department of Political Science and Department of Sociology in December 2007.
The faculty offers undergraduate courses which lead to Bachelor of Arts (B.A.), Bachelor of Fine Arts (B.F.A.) and Bachelor of Law (LL.B.) degrees free bpa water bottles.
The faculty is currently divided into sixteen departments two of which are based at the Ramanathan Academy of Fine Arts:
The faculty’s current dean and deputy registrar are K. Suthakar and M. Ganeshalingam respectively 4s waterproof case. The faculty had 2,751 undergraduate students and 169 academic staff (126 permanent, 43 temporary) in 2016.
The Faculty of Business Studies was established when the Vavuniya Campus of the University of Jaffna was created in April 1997.
The faculty offers undergraduate courses which lead to Bachelor of Business Management degrees.
The faculty is currently divided into two departments:
The faculty’s current dean and assistant registrar are A. Pushpanathan and D. Sooriyakumar respectively. The faculty had 391 undergraduate students and 20 academic staff (13 permanent, 7 temporary) in 2016.
The faculty offers undergraduate courses which lead to Bachelor of Science in Engineering (B.Sc.Eng.) degrees.
The faculty is currently divided into four departments:
The faculty had 142 undergraduate students and 44 academic staff (20 permanent, 24 temporary) in 2016.
The Faculty of Graduate Studies was established in June 1999.
The faculty offers post graduate courses which lead to Master of Arts, Master of Education, Master of Philosophy and Doctor of Philosophy degrees.
The faculty’s current dean and assistant registrar are G. Mikunthan and S. Branavan respectively.
The Faculty of Management Studies and Commerce was established in May 1999 from parts of the Faculty of Arts. Professor M. Nadarajasundaram, Head of the Department of Management Studies, was appointed the first Dean of the Faculty of Management Studies and Commerce.
The faculty offers undergraduate courses which lead to Bachelor of Business Administration (B.B.A.), Bachelor of Business Management (B.B.M.) and Bachelor of Commerce (B.Com.) degrees.
Initially the faculty had two departments: Commerce and Management Studies. In 2010 the Department of Commerce was split into four departments: Accounting, Financial Management, Human Resource Management and Marketing. The Department of Commerce was re-established in 2012. The faculty is currently divided into six departments:
The faculty’s current dean and assistant registrar are T. Velnampy and K. Vijitha respectively. The faculty had 1,406 undergraduate students and 48 academic staff (40 permanent, 8 temporary) in 2016.
The Faculty of Medicine was established in August 1978 with its base at the Ayurvedic Hospital in Kaithady. A. A. Hoover, Professor of Biochemistry, was appointed the first Dean of the Faculty of Medicine. The faculty was ceremonially opened on 8 October 1978 by Nissanka Wijeyeratne, Minister of Education and Higher Education. The Provincial Hospital at Jaffna was declared the teaching hospital for the faculty. Construction of a new building for the faculty at the Thirunelveli site began in 1979. The faculty left Kaithady and moved into the new building at Thirunelveli in 1981.
The faculty offers undergraduate courses which lead to Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (M.B.B.S.), Bachelor of Pharmacy (B.Pharm.), Bachelor of Science in Medical Laboratory Sciences and Bachelor of Science in Nursing (B.Sc.N.) degrees.
The faculty is currently divided into twelve departments:
In addition, the Allied Health Sciences Unit offers courses in medical laboratory sciences, nursing, occupational therapy, pharmacy, physiotherapy and radiography.
The faculty’s current dean and senior assistant registrar are S. Raviraj and A. R. Ramesh. The faculty had 882 undergraduate students and 59 academic staff (54 permanent, 5 temporary) in 2016.
The Jaffna Campus of the University of Sri Lanka started functioning in October 1974 with two faculties: Faculty of Humanities and Faculty of Science. The Faculty of Science was based at Jaffna College in Vaddukoddai. P. Kanagasabapathy, Head of the Department of Mathematics at the Peradeniya Campus of the University of Sri Lanka, was appointed the first Dean of the Faculty of Science. The faculty initially had only one department: Mathematics and Statistics.
The Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics were started in April 1975.
The facilities at Jaffna College proved to be inadequate and construction of a new building for the faculty at the Thirunelveli site began in 1975. The faculty left Jaffna College and moved into the Natural Science Block at Thirunelveli in June 1978.
Three Physics Block was completed in September 1980, Mathematics and Statistics Block in 1985 and Chemistry Block in 1988. The Department of Computer Science was started in 1991. The Department of Fisheries was added in June 2009.
The faculty offers undergraduate courses which lead to Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) degrees.
The faculty is currently divided into seven departments:
The faculty’s current dean and assistant registrar are R. Vigneswaran and A. Philips Vijayaratnam. The faculty had 978 undergraduate students and 150 academic staff (72 permanent, 78 temporary) in 2016.
The Faculty of Technology was established in 2016. The faculty is expected to admit its first students towards the end of 2016. It will be located near the Faculty of Agriculture and Faculty of Engineering in Kilinochchi.
The faculty offers courses in engineering technology and bio technology.
The faculty is currently divided into three departments:
The faculty’s current dean is S. Srisatkunarajah.
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Kristín Ómarsdóttir (born 24 September 1962) is a poet and a writer from Iceland. Her first play was produced in 1987, and her first book of poetry was published the same year. She is noted as a poet, playwright, and novelist. Kristín currently lives in Reykjavík.
Kristín Ómarsdóttir was born in Reykjavík; she spent her first years in Copenhagen and lived the best part of her childhood in Hafnarfjörður, a town near Reykjavík. She studied literature, Spanish and Icelandic at The University of Iceland. She wrote her first play in 1985, which won her the first prize in a competition run by The National Theater of Iceland. Kristín has worked as a writer since the middle of the eighties. The first decade she also worked as a free lance journalist. Her novel, Elskan mín ég dey, translated into Swedish and French, was nominated for , in 2000. For her play, Segðu mér allt, she won ‘. She lived and worked in Barcelona for couple of years. Apart from writing novels, poetry and plays, she has exhibited her drawings and worked in the field of visual art. Some of her books publish her drawings.
Olipa kerran tarinoita, Like, 1994
T´es pas la seule à être morte
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, Le Cavalier Bleu, 2003
Meu amor water in bpa free bottles, eu morro, rinoceronte, 2015
Ewige Speigelungen running belt for phone, 2015
, Kabusa Böcker, 2007 Gud hjälpe mig I och II, Kabusa Böcker, 2003 Älskling jag dör, Anamma, 1999
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Unghegelianerne var en bred, ikke nærmere defineret gruppe i 1830’ernes og 1840’ernes tyske stater, som Preussen, Bayern og andre steder best meat mallet. Gruppe bestod af unge filosoffer, der repræsenterede en ny, fælles idéstrømning glass camelbak water bottle, der adskilte sig fra de gamle hegelianere waterproof sports bag, der repræsenterede den tyske idealisme.
De vigtigste unghegelianske eksponenter var Ludwig Feuerbach og Bruno Bauer. Også Friedrich Engels og Karl Marx hørte til kredsen, og Marx’ siden så berømte religionskritik var stærkt inspireret af Feuerbach, hvilket blandt andet kom til udtryk i de 11 såkaldte Feuerbach-teser, som Marx skrev i 1845.
Unghegelianerne var ligeledes tilhængere af de nye politiske strømninger som liberalismen og socialismen i oplysningstidens ånd i modsætning til de gamle hegelianere, der bl.a. støttede monarkiet. Derfor kaldtes unghegelianerne også venstrehegelianerne.
Mens de gamle hegelianere havde forsvaret et stort idealistisk system, som Hegel havde udviklet, der byggede på teologien thermos drinking flask, flyttede unghegelianerne fokus fra gud til menneske. De forsøgte at forstå hvilken størrelse mennesket var og søgte menneskelige værdier.
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The Magnesian Limestone is a suite of carbonate rocks in north-east England dating from the Permian period. The outcrop stretches from Nottingham northwards through Yorkshire and into County Durham where it is exposed along the coast between Hartlepool and South Shields. The term has now been discontinued in formal use though it appears widely in popular and scientific literature on the geology of northern England.
The Magnesian Limestone is now incorporated within the Zechstein Group. In the southern part of its outcrop, the former ‘Lower Magnesian Limestone’ is now referred to as the ‘Cadeby Formation’. Overlying this it is the ‘Edlington Formation’ (formerly the ‘Middle Permian Marl’) and above this the Brotherton Formation (formerly the ‘Upper Magnesian Limestone’). In the north football tops cheap, the Lower Magnesian Limestone is now referred to as the Raisby Formation and the middle Magnesian Limestone as the Ford Formation. The Upper Magnesian Limestone is replaced by the Roker Formation (in its lower part) and the Seaham Formation (in its upper part) with the Edlington formation between them, though in the Durham area this last is replaced by the Fordham Evaporite Formation and the Seaham Residue.
Much of the Magnesian Limestone is dolomite, i.e. calcium magnesium carbonate jogging water bottle, and has been for many years the main source of dolomite-rock in Britain. It is used in connection with the production of refractory bricks but also for aggregate for road-building and other construction purposes. It is also used in the production of agricultural lime
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. This type of limestone was used for statues in antiquity because of its resistance to acid marinade to tenderize steak. Many pieces of dolomite were found in the ruins of Rome, though they are thought to have been brought from Magnesia in Greece.
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De dode Christus met engelen (Frans: Le Christ mort et les anges) is de titel van een schilderij van Édouard Manet uit 1864. Het is een van de weinige religieuze werken van de schilder. Op de Parijse Salon van 1864 kon het schilderij voornamelijk op afkeurende reacties rekenen. Tegenwoordig maakt het deel uit van de collectie van het Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.
Manet en zijn impressionistische tijdgenoten hebben weinig schilderijen met religieuze voorstellingen gemaakt. Enerzijds kwam dit omdat hun interesses veel meer bij het moderne leven lagen, anderzijds omdat zij geen opdrachten ontvingen voor kerkelijke schilderijen. In het oeuvre van Manet nemen De dode Christus met engelen en Jezus bespot door de soldaten daarom een bijzondere positie in.
Een inscriptie op een steen rechtsonder geeft aan welke scène is afgebeeld: évang. sel. St. Jean / chap.XX v water belt for runners.XII. In dit vers uit het Evangelie volgens Johannes wordt verhaald dat Maria Magdalena twee engelen in witte kleren bij het graf van Christus zag zitten, een bij het hoofdeind en een bij het voeteneind van de plek waar zijn lichaam had gelegen. Op het schilderij van Manet is het lichaam van Christus niet verdwenen, maar wordt ondersteund door een van de engelen. Mogelijkerwijs was Manet geïnspireerd door het boek La vie de Jésus van Ernest Renan, dat in 1863 was uitgekomen. Daarin wees Renan alle bovennatuurlijke verschijnselen in de Bijbel van de hand, waaronder de wederopstanding. In zijn analyse gebruikte hij onder meer hoofdstuk 20 uit het Evangelie volgens Johannes. De sfeer die het schilderij uitstraalt, sluit hier nauw bij aan, geen triomf over de verrijzenis van Christus, maar diepe rouw om zijn overlijden.
Nadat Manet het schilderij had ingediend bij de Salon, kwam hij tot de ontdekking dat hij een fout had gemaakt: de wond van de lans was aan de verkeerde zijde van het lichaam geschilderd. Toen Manet dit aan de dichter Charles Baudelaire vertelde, raadde die hem aan de wond over te schilderen, om de critici geen aanleiding tot spot te geven. De schilder had echter geen tijd meer om zijn fout te herstellen waterproof handphone case.
Het schilderij kreeg inderdaad veel kritiek te verduren, met name om de realistische weergave van het dode lichaam van Christus. De schrijver Théophile Gautier, die bewondering had voor de schilderskwaliteiten van Manet, bracht de bezwaren goed onder woorden.
Le Christ de M waist pack water bottle holder. Manet ne semble pas avoir connu jamais l’ussage des ablutions. La lividité de la mort se mêle chez lui à des demi-teintes crasseuses, à des ombres sales et noires dont jamais la résurrection ne le débarbouillera, si un cadavre tellemet avancé peut ressusciter toutefois.
(De Christus van mijnheer Manet lijkt het gebruik van water en zeep niet te kennen. De lijkbleekheid van de dood vermengt zich bij hem met smerige tinten, met vieze, donkere schaduwen die zelfs de wederopstanding niet zal wegpoetsen, als een lijk in zo’n staat van ontbinding al kan herrijzen.)
Hoewel zijn tijdgenoten gechoqueerd waren door de wijze waarop Manet de dode Christus had afgebeeld, bleef de voorstelling sterk geworteld in de traditie van de Spaanse en Italiaanse meesters, waardoor Manet in het begin van zijn carrière sterk beïnvloed was. Zo hebben kunsthistorici gewezen op de overeenkomsten met schilderijen van onder andere Mantegna en Veronese.
Jezus bespot door de soldaten (1865)
De dode Christus ondersteund door twee engelen – Andrea Mantegna
De Spaanse zanger (1860) · Jongen met zwaard (1861) · Muziek in de Tuilerieën (1862) · Lola de Valence (1862) · De oude muzikant (1862) · Victorine Meurent in het kostuum van een espada (1862) · De straatzangeres (ca. 1862) · Le déjeuner sur l’herbe (1863) · Olympia (1863) · Jongeman in het kostuum van een majo (1863) · De dode Christus met engelen (1864) · De slag tussen de USS Kearsarge en de CSS Alabama (1864) · De USS Kearsarge in Boulogne (1864) · Het lezen (ca. 1865) · De fluitspeler (1866) · De paardenrennen in Longchamp (ca. 1866) · De begrafenis (ca. 1867) · De Executie van Maximiliaan (1868) · Mevrouw Manet aan de piano (1868) · Portret van Émile Zola (1868) · Maneschijn over de haven van Boulogne (1868-69) · Het balkon (1868-69) · Berthe Morisot met een boeket viooltjes (1872) · De spoorweg (1873) · Op het strand (1873) · Gemaskerd bal in de opera (1873) · Argenteuil (1874) · Claude Monet schilderend in zijn atelierboot (1874) · De pruim (ca. 1877) · Portret van Faure in de rol van Hamlet (1877) · De Rue Mosnier met vlaggen (1878) · La serveuse de bocks (1879) · Bij Père Lathuille (1879) · In de serre (1879) · Portret van Irma Brunner, de Weense (ca. 1880) · Een bar in de Folies-Bergère (1882)
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Bordentown è un comune degli Stati Uniti d’America, nella contea di Burlington, nello Stato del New Jersey. Secondo il censimento del 2000 la cittadina aveva una popolazione di 3.969 abitanti water bottle tops for toddlers, scesa a 3.854 nel 2007. Bordentown si trova alla confluenza dei fiumi Delaware, Black’s Creek e Crosswicks Creek, quest’ultimo segna il confine tra le contee di Burlington e Mercer.
Bordentown in origine venne riconosciuta come borough, per un atto dell’assemblea legislativa del New Jersey datato 9 dicembre 1825, appartenente al comune di Chesterfield. Fu redifinita come city il 3 aprile 1867 e venne separata da Chesterfield nel 1877.
La città ebbe un ruolo importante nella guerra di indipendenza americana: situata in una zona di patrioti venne occupata dagli assiani nel 1776 e razziata dagli inglesi nel 1778. Divenne una delle basi realiste nel New Jersey, assieme a Trenton e Princeton.
Secondo lo United States Census Bureau la città occupa un’area di 2,5 km². Il 94,85 % (2,4 km²) è occupata da terreno mentre lo 5,15 % (0,1 km²) da acque interne.
La città è circondata su tre lati dall’omonima township mentre sul lato ovest dall’unione tra il fiume Delaware e il Crosswicks Creek. La città è servita ad est dalla U.S. Route 130 e dalla U bpa drink bottles.S. Route 206 e a sud del Black’s Creek dalla Interstate 295; a nord scorre la Mile Hollow Run. Al di là del fiume Delaware vi è Falls, sita nella contea di Bucks (Pennsylvania) a glass bottle.
La città è servita dalla tranvia interurbana denominata linea River.
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