Civita è una frazione del comune di Bagnoregio, in provincia di Viterbo, nel Lazio, facente parte dei borghi più belli d’Italia Christian Louboutin Shop Online, famosa per essere denominata “La città che muore”.
Abitata da una decina di persone e situata in posizione isolata, è raggiungibile solo attraverso un ponte pedonale in cemento armato costruito nel 1965. Il ponte può essere percorso soltanto a piedi, ma recentemente il comune di Bagnoregio, venendo incontro alle esigenze di chi vive o lavora in questo luogo, ha emesso una circolare in cui dichiara che, in determinati orari, residenti e persone autorizzate possono attraversare il ponte a bordo di cicli e motocicli. La causa del suo isolamento è la progressiva erosione della collina e della vallata circostante, che ha dato vita alle tipiche forme dei calanchi e che continua ancora oggi, rischiando di far scomparire la frazione, per questo chiamata anche “la città che muore” o, più raramente, “il paese che muore”.
La valle dei calanchi è situata tra il lago di Bolsena ad ovest e la valle del Tevere ad est, nel comune di Bagnoregio. È costituita da due valli principali: il Fossato del Rio Torbido e il Fossato del Rio Chiaro. In origine questi luoghi dovevano essere più dolci e accessibili ed erano attraversati da un’antica strada che collegava la valle del Tevere al Lago di Bolsena.
La morfologia di quest’area è stata provocata dall’erosione e dalle frane. Il territorio è costituito da due formazioni distinte per cronologia e tipo. Quella più antica è quella argillosa, di origine marina e costituisce lo strato di base, particolarmente soggetto all’erosione. Gli strati superiori sono invece formati da materiale tufaceo e lavico. La veloce erosione è dovuta all’opera dei torrenti, agli agenti atmosferici, ma anche al disboscamento.
La superficie del territorio di Civita di Bagnoregio non è molto estesa, ma abbastanza eterogenea. La vegetazione dei calanchi, a causa della loro natura argillosa, è limitata a poche specie, disposte in piccoli e radi gruppi. Anche in primavera, quando la flora è al massimo rigoglio, il terreno rimane per buona parte scoperto. Nella fascia più bassa dei calanchi si trova una zona cespugliosa, costituita da rovi, canne, ginestre, qualche arbusto di olmo e, talvolta, rosa canina. All’interno della valle la vegetazione è costituita da piante arboree, da arbusti e da erbe palustri. La vegetazione delle rupi tufacee dello sperone roccioso sul quale si erge Civita, risulta limitata a poche specie con copertura esigua.
La fauna di questa zona è quella tipica delle aree collinari dell’Alto Lazio. Negli ambienti boschivi, costituiti soprattutto da macchie di bosco ceduo, tra le principali specie di mammiferi risultano il riccio tra gli insettivori, l’istrice tra i roditori, la volpe, la donnola, il tasso, la faina e il cinghiale tra i carnivori. Inoltre presenti la tortora e l’upupa, entrambi estivi. Da segnalare la gremita comunità felina che vive all’interno delle mura della città. Non si tratta di gatti selvatici, ma di gatti domestici randagi, la cui presenza va certamente collegata all’ambiente antropico abbandonato.
Civita venne fondata 2500 anni fa dagli Etruschi. Sorge su una delle più antiche vie d’Italia, congiungente il Tevere (allora grande via di navigazione dell’Italia Centrale) e il lago di Bolsena.
All’antico abitato di Civita si accedeva mediante cinque porte, mentre oggi la porta detta di Santa Maria o della Cava, costituisce l’unico accesso al paese Ted Baker Ireland. La struttura urbanistica dell’intero abitato è di origine etrusca, costituita da cardi e decumani secondo l’uso etrusco e poi romano, mentre l’intero rivestimento architettonico risulta medioevale e rinascimentale. Numerose sono le testimonianze della fase etrusca di Civita, specialmente nella zona detta di San Francesco vecchio; infatti nella rupe sottostante il belvedere di San Francesco vecchio è stata ritrovata una piccola necropoli etrusca. Anche la grotta di San Bonaventura, nella quale si dice che San Francesco risanò il piccolo Giovanni Fidanza, che divenne poi San Bonaventura, è in realtà una tomba a camera etrusca. Gli etruschi fecero di Civita (di cui non conosciamo l’antico nome) una fiorente città, favorita dalla posizione strategica per il commercio, grazie alla vicinanza con le più importanti vie di comunicazione del tempo.
Del periodo etrusco rimangono molte testimonianze: di particolare suggestione è il cosiddetto “Bucaione”, un profondo tunnel che incide la parte più bassa dell’abitato, e che permette l’accesso, direttamente dal paese, alla Valle dei Calanchi. In passato erano inoltre visibili molte tombe a camera, scavate alla base della rupe di Civita e delle altre pareti di tufo limitrofe che purtroppo furono in gran parte fagocitate, nei secoli, dalle innumerevoli frane. Del resto, già gli stessi Etruschi dovettero far fronte ai problemi di sismicità e di instabilità dell’area, che nel 280 a.C. si concretarono in scosse telluriche e smottamenti. All’arrivo dei romani, nel 265 a.C., furono riprese le imponenti opere di canalizzazione delle acque piovane e di contenimento dei torrenti avviate dagli etruschi.
Come detto sopra, il problema dell’erosione era già all’epoca degli Etruschi molto importante. Quindi misero in atto alcune opere che avevano il preciso scopo di proteggere Civita dai terremoti e dagli smottamenti, arginando fiumi e costruendo canali di scolo per il corretto deflusso delle acque piovane. I romani ripresero le opere dei loro predecessori, ma dopo di loro queste furono trascurate ed il territorio ebbe un rapido degrado che portò, infine, all’abbandono della Civita.
All’interno del borgo rimangono varie case medievali, la chiesa di San Donato, che si affaccia sulla piazza principale e dove al suo interno è custodito il S.S. Crocefisso ligneo, il Palazzo Vescovile, un mulino del XVI secolo, la casa natale di San Bonaventura e la porta di Santa Maria, con due leoni che tengono tra le zampe una testa umana, a ricordo di una rivolta popolare degli abitanti di Civita contro la famiglia orvietana dei Monaldeschi.
Nel 2005 i calanchi di Civita di Bagnoregio sono stati proposti come sito di interesse comunitario.
Il giorno del venerdì santo avviene il più sentito appuntamento della cittadina di Civita, quando all’interno della Chiesa di San Donato, durante una commovente cerimonia, viene deposto il S.S. Crocifisso il quale viene adagiato su una bara per trasportarlo all’interno della secolare Processione del Venerdì Santo di Bagnoregio. La leggenda vuole che durante un’epidemia di peste che nel 1499 riguardò tutto il territorio intorno a Bagnoregio, il Crocifisso abbia parlato ad una Pia donna, la quale si recava ogni giorno al cospetto della venerata Immagine chiedendo con le sue preghiere che avesse fine lo strazio. Un giorno, mentre la donna pregava “il Cristo”, udì una voce, che la rassicurava e la avvertiva che il Signore aveva esaudito le sue preghiere e che la pestilenza avrebbe a breve avuto fine, come puntualmente avvenne dopo qualche giorno contemporaneamente alla morte della Pia donna.
Il vecchio paese è iscritto all’associazione de I borghi più belli d’Italia. Per la sua posizione geografica suggestiva e il suo impianto medievale è ogni anno meta di numerosi turisti ed è stata diverse volte utilizzata come set cinematografico.
Da giugno 2013 l’accesso al Borgo di Civita di Bagnoregio costa €1,50.
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The Parliamentary Consultation Committee is a joint committee of the Federal Parliament of Belgium. It is established by Article 82 of the Belgian Constitution and its main task is to resolve certain disputes with regard to legislative procedure and the time limits within which the Senate can evoke and examine certain bills Christian Louboutin Outlet Australia. It functions in accordance with the law of 6 April 1995.
The Parliamentary Consultation Committee consists of 11 members of the Chamber of Representatives, including the President of the Chamber of Representatives and 11 members of the Senate, including the President of the Senate. The members of the Committee are appointed by their respective chamber for a term of 4 years, unless the Chambers are dissolved early, in accordance with the principle of proportional representation. It is chaired alternately by the President of the Chamber of Representatives and the President of the Senate for the duration of a parliamentary year, which lasts in principle from October to October the following year.
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Neptune Islands Conservation Park is a protected area occupying most of the Neptune Islands in South Australia about 55 km (34 mi) south-south east of Port Lincoln. It was established in 1967 principally to protect a New Zealand fur seal breeding colony. The conservation park was subsequently expanded to include the adjoining waters in order to control and manage berleying activities used to attract great white sharks. As of 2002, the conservation park is the only place in Australia where shark cage diving to view great white sharks is legally permitted.
The conservation park includes all the islands within the group with the exception of all or part of the southernmost island (known as Lighthouse Island) in the South Neptune Islands where land has been reserved for ongoing use by a lighthouse and the waters within 2 nautical miles (4 km) of the mean low water mark of both groups of islands. The conservation park is classified as an IUCN Category Ia protected area.
The conservation park was proclaimed on 16 March 1967 mainly to conserve the New Zealand fur seal breeding colony on the southern island of the North Neptune Islands which is reported as being one of the largest in Australia. Other features that contributed to the declaration include the small breeding population of Australian sea lions on the North Neptune Islands, Australian sea lion haul out areas on the South Neptune Islands and the breeding/nesting populations of Cape Barren goose, white-bellied sea eagle, osprey and peregrine falcon.
The conservation park was subsequently extended to include the waters within 2 nautical miles (4 km) of the shoreline of both the North and South Neptune Islands via a declaration under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (SA), to regulate and manage great white shark berleying activities around both groups of islands.
1n 1990, most of Lighthouse Island was reportedly added to the conservation park after the conversion of the lighthouse to automatic operation with the exception of some land around the lighthouse and an associated helicopter landing site.
On 29 November 2012, the waters within 2 nautical miles (4 km) of the coastline of both the North and South Neptune Islands at median high water also became part of a protected area known as the Neptune Islands Group (Ron and Valerie Taylor) Marine Park. The marine park entity provides a level of regulation additional to that of the conservation park in respect to the use of the waters adjoining both groups of islands.
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, the conservation park is the only venue in Australia where the use of shark cage diving to view great white sharks is legally permitted. Access for shark cage diving is via three operators licensed by the Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources.
Fauna intended to be protected by the declaration of the conservation park in 1967.
New Zealand fur seal
Australian sea lion
Cape Barren goose
White-bellied sea eagle
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Hauyne, haüyne or hauynite is a tectosilicate mineral with sulfate, with endmember formula Na3Ca(Si3Al3)O12(SO4). As much as 5 wt % K2O may be present, and also H2O and Cl. It is a feldspathoid and a member of the sodalite group. Hauyne was first described in 1807 from samples discovered in Vesuvian lavas in Monte Somma, Italy, and was named in 1807 by Brunn-Neergard for the French crystallographer René Just Haüy (1743–1822).
All these minerals are feldspathoids. Haüyne forms a solid solution with nosean and with sodalite. Complete solid solution exists between synthetic nosean and haüyne at 600 °C, but only limited solid solution occurs in the sodalite-nosean and sodalite-haüyne systems.
Haüyne belongs to the hexatetrahedral class of the isometric system, 43m, space group P43n. It has one formula unit per unit cell (Z = 1), which is a cube with side length of 9 Å. More accurate measurements are as follows:
All silicates have a basic structural unit that is a tetrahedron with an oxygen ion O at each apex, and a silicon ion Si in the middle, forming (SiO4)4−. In tectosilicates (framework silicates) each oxygen ion is shared between two tetrahedra, linking all the tetrahedra together to form a framework. Since each O is shared between two tetrahedra only half of it “belongs” to the Si ion in either tetrahedron, and if no other components are present then the formula is SiO2, as in quartz.
Aluminium ions Al, however, can substitute for some of the silicon ions, forming (AlO4)5− tetrahedra. If the substitution is random the ions are said to be disordered, but in haüyne the Al and Si in the tetrahedral framework are fully ordered.
Si has a charge 4+, but the charge on Al is only 3+. If all the cations (positive ions) are Si then the positive charges on the Si’s exactly balance the negative charges on the O’s. When Al replaces Si there is a deficiency of positive charge, and this is made up by extra positively charged ions (cations) entering the structure, somewhere in between the tetrahedra.
In haüyne these extra cations are sodium Na+ and calcium Ca2+
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, and in addition the negatively charged sulfate group (SO4)2− is also present. In the haüyne structure the tetrahedra are linked to form six-membered rings which are stacked up in an ..ABCABC.. sequence along one direction, and rings of four tetrahedra are stacked up parallel to another direction. The resulting arrangement forms continuous channels that can accommodate a large variety of cations and anions.
Haüyne crystallizes in the isometric system forming rare dodecahedral or pseudo-octahedral crystals that may reach 3 cm across; it also occurs as rounded grains. The crystals are transparent to translucent, with a vitreous to greasy luster. The color is usually bright blue, but it can also be white, grey, yellow, green and pink. In thin section the crystals are colorless or pale blue, and the streak is very pale blue to white.
Haüyne is isotropic. Truly isotropic minerals have no birefringence, but haüyne is weakly birefringent when it contains inclusions. The refractive index is 1.50. Although this is quite low, similar to that of ordinary window glass, it is the largest value for minerals of the sodalite group. It may show reddish orange to purplish pink fluorescence under longwave ultraviolet light.
Cleavage is distinct to perfect, and twinning is common, as contact, penetration and polysynthetic twins. The fracture is uneven to conchoidal, the mineral is brittle, and it has hardness 5½ to 6, almost as hard as feldspar. All the members of the sodalite group have quite low densities, less than that of quartz; haüyne is the densest of them all, but still its specific gravity is only 2.44 to 2.50. If haüyne is placed on a glass slide and treated with nitric acid HNO3, and then the solution is allowed to evaporate slowly, monoclinic needles of gypsum form. This distinguishes haüyne from sodalite, which forms cubic crystals of chlorite under the same conditions. The mineral is not radioactive.
Haüyne occurs in phonolites and related leucite- or nepheline-rich, silica-poor, igneous rocks; less commonly in nepheline-free extrusives and metamorphic rocks (marble). Associated minerals include nepheline KNa3(AlSiO4)4, leucite K(Si2Al)O6, titanian andradite Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3, melilite (Ca,Na)(Mg
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,Al,Fe)(Si,Al)2O7, augite(Ca,Mg,Fe)2(Si,Al)2O6, sanidine K(AlSi3)O8, biotite K(Fe2+,Mg)3AlSi3O10(OH,F)2, phlogopite KMg3(Si3Al)O10(OH)2 and apatite Ca5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH).
The type locality is Lake Nemi, Alban Hills, Rome Province, Latium, Italy.
JMol: http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/AMS/viewJmol.php?id=05334 V. Nasti, “L’olotipo dell’haüyna” (2009), Il Cercapietre, Notiziario del Gruppo Mineralogico Romano, n. 1-2/2009, pagg.16-43.
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Siegmund von Dietrichstein Reichsfreiherr zu Hollenburg Finkenstein und Thalberg (* 19. März 1484 auf Burg Hartneidstein bei Wolfsberg (Kärnten); † 19. Mai 1533 in Finkenstein am Faakersee (Kärnten)) war ein österreichischer Adeliger, Offizier, kaiserlicher Rat, Erbmundschenk im Herzogtum Kärnten, Landeshauptmann im Herzogtum Steiermark und Statthalter der innerösterreichischen Lande. Er war u. a. Herr der Herrschaften Hartberg, Pfannberg, Burg Kammerstein, Ehrnau, Arnfels, St. Paternion, Wachseneck, Aspang. Siegmund war ein Günstling von Kaiser Maximilian I., den ein Gerücht zu seinem Vater machte, der jedoch sein Schwiegervater war. Er genoss aber auch das Vertrauen von Erzherzog Ferdinand I.
Siegmund entstammt dem österreichischen Uradelsgeschlecht der von Dietrichstein und war ein jüngerer Sohn des Pankraz von Dietrichstein und der Barbara Gössl von Thurn.
Er kam früh an den Hof von Kaiser Maximilian I., der ihn „wie einen Sohn“ in jeder Hinsicht förderte. Er machte ihn zum kaiserlichen Obersilberkämmerer, übertrug ihm 1508 pfandweise Schloss und Herrschaft Finkenstein in Kärnten und im gleichen Jahr das Schloss Lankowitz bei Graz um 4000 Gulden, gab ihm 1509 die Pflegschaft der Herrschaft Schmierenberg bei Marburg (Maribor) und im gleichen Jahr pfandweise die Herrschaft Burg Hollenburg in Kärnten. Im Jahr 1513 übertrug er ihm das Amt Lavamünd samt dem Markt in Pflegschaft und verkaufte ihm laut Revers vom 12. Februar Herrschaft, Schloss und Stadt Gmünd in Kärnten um 28.000 Gulden. Am 8. Juli 1514 erhob Kaiser Maximilian Siegmund von Dietrichstein und alle ehelichen Leibserben in den Freiherrnstand des Heiligen Römischen Reiches. Am 25. Jänner 1515 verkaufte der Kaiser ihm die Herrschaften Arnfels bei Marburg, Aspang-Markt und Feistritz in Niederösterreich.
Sigismund bewährte sich nicht nur als Landeshauptmann der Steiermark und als Statthalter von Innerösterreich, sondern auch als Offizier. So 1514 im Krieg gegen die Venezianer. Im Jahr 1515 begann in der Untersteiermark, im heutigen Slowenien bei Gonnowitz ein Aufstand windischer (slowenischer) Bauern, die sich im Windischen Bundschuh unter der Devise za staro pravdo („für das alte Recht“) zusammengeschlossen hatten, um nach den zahlreichen Angriffen von Türken und Ungarn gegen die wachsenden Türkensteuern zu protestieren. Mangels Konzessionen kam es zu Plünderungen von Kirchen und Klöstern und zur Zerstörung von Burgen. Das sich der Bewegung auch Bauern aus Krain und Kärnten anschlossen waren schließlich fast 80.000 Bauern im Aufstand. Um die Ordnung wiederherzustellen, sammelte Siegmund von Dietrichstein – unterstützt von Georg von Herberstein – Truppen und zog den Rebellen mit 850 Reitern und fünf Regimentern Fußvolk über Pettau (Ptuj) entgegen. Durch einen überraschenden Überfall auf das Lager der Aufständischen bei Rain konnten diese im September 1516 besiegt und vertrieben werden. Als Landeshauptmann von Steiermark stiftete am 22. Juni 1517 die Bruderschaft des Heiligen Christoph wider das Trinken und Fluchen.
Nach dem Tod seines Wohltäters, Kaiser Maximilian im Jahre 1519, wollte sich Siegmund – auch wegen Anfeindungen verschiedener Gegner – ins Privatleben zurückziehen, wurde jedoch von Erzherzog Ferdinand I. an den Hof zurückgerufen. Dadurch hatte er auch die Aufgabe, als Stellvertreter von Ferdinand I. – am 11. Dezember 1520 in Innsbruck an der Trauungszeremonie mit dessen Braut, der Prinzessin Anna von Böhmen und Ungarn mitzuwirken. Beim Beilager des Brautpaares am 25. Mai 1521 in Linz nahm er als Obersthofmeister der neuen Erzherzogin teil. Am 24. Oktober 1523 gab er die Herrschaft Arnfels an Erzherzog Ferdinand zurück.
Da 1525 in Schwaben, Franken und im Rheinland Bauernaufstände ausgebrochen waren, kam es auch in der Steiermark und in Salzburg zu Aufständen, wodurch Fürsterzbischof Matthäus Lang von Wellenburg in der Festung Hohensalzburg eingeschlossen wurde. Dietrichstein, der wegen seines erfolgreichen Vorgehens bei den Bauernaufständen in der Steiermark berühmt war, versuchte mit 5000 Mann über Schladming und Radstadt vorzudringen, um die Festung Hohenwerfen zu besetzen. Dies scheiterte jedoch an einer Meuterei seiner Truppen, die keinen Sold erhalten hatten. Mit Mühe gelang es ihm, Schladming zu besetzen. Wenig später wurde er jedoch von den aufständischen Bauern des Salzburger Bundes unter Führung des Michael Gruber von Bramberg am 3. Juli 1525 frühmorgens in Schladming überfallen, gefangen genommen und nach Werfen abgeführt. Nur knapp entging er dank seiner Landsknechte der Hinrichtung, wurde jedoch wegen seiner Bemühungen um Herstellung des Friedens bald wieder freigelassen. Daher konnte schon am 31. August 1525 im Feldlager vor Salzburg ein Vertrag unterzeichnet werden, durch den der Bauernführer Gruber die Waffen niederlegte.
Im gleichen Jahr erbte er über seine Frau die Pfandschaft über Mödling in Niederösterreich und die Herrschaft Talberg bei Graz. Am 25. März 1528 kaufte Siegmund von König Ferdinand I. die steirische Herrschaft Kammerstein um 20.000 Gulden und am gleichen Tag die Herrschaft Pfannberg mit dem Markt Semriach um 14.258 Gulden. Am 8. Jänner 1530 tauschte er vom König die Stadt und das Schloss Hartberg bei Graz gegen die Herrschaft Eberau (Bezirk Güssing, Burgenland)(Monyorokerek) und 8000 Gulden ein und kaufte 1530 vom Stift Vorau das Schweighoferamt.
Er starb am 19. Mai 1533 auf Burg Finkenstein und wurde in Villach in der St. Jakobskirche bestattet, obwohl er nach dem Testament Kaiser Maximilians I. von 1519 in der Burg in Wiener Neustadt zu den Füßen des Kaisers beigesetzt werden sollte.
Er heiratete in Wien, am 22. Juli 1515, Barbara von Rottal Freiin zu Talberg, eine außereheliche Tochter von Kaiser Maximilian. Deren Sonderstellung wird durch das Festmahl anlässlich der Trauung unterstrichen, bei dem angeblich 300 Speisen aufgetragen wurden und an dem auch Kaiser Maximilian, König Sigismund I. der Alte von Polen, König Ladislaus II. von Ungarn, der ungarische Kronprinz Ludwig, dessen Schwester Anna, die Herzoge Heinrich von Braunschweig, Wilhelm IV. und Ludwig X. von Bayern, Albrecht VII willi bogner. von Mecklenburg, sowie Kasimir Markgraf von Brandenburg-Kulmbach, der Fürsterzbischof von Salzburg, Leonhard von Keutschach, und der Bischof von Regensburg, Johann III. von der Pfalz, und zahlreiche andere Magnaten teilnahmen.
Aus seiner Ehe hatte Siegmund unter anderen zwei Söhne:
Die Brüder teilten den Hollenburgischen Stamm in zwei Äste, den österreichischen, welcher 1651 in den Reichsgrafenstand und 1684 in den Reichsfürstenstand erhoben wurde und 1861 mit Johann Duclas im Mannesstamm erlosch, und den Nikolsburger oder fürstlichen Ast.
Anlässlich seiner Vermählung mit Barbara von Rottal wurde 1515 ein halber Taler mit namentlicher Umschrift geprägt, wo Siegmund – im Harnisch – und seine Gemahlin im Brustbild zu sehen sind.
Pietro Bonomo | Siegmund von Dietrichstein | Leonhard von Harrach zu Rohrau | Cyriak Freiherr von Polheim und Wartenburg | Georg Freiherr von Puchheim | Christophorus Rauber | Trojan von Auersperg | Hans (III.) Ungnad Freiherr von Sonneck | Christoph von Eyczing | Gabriel Ritter von Kreuzer | Joachim Freiherr von Schönkirchen | Oswald Philipp von Eyczing | Seyfried von Breuner | Ruprecht Freiherr von Stotzingen | Wolfgang Freiherr von Hofkirchen | Ernst Mollard Freiherr von Reineck und Drosendorf | Paul Sixtus Trautson Graf zu Falkenstein | Leonhard Helfried Graf von Meggau | Seyfried Christoph von Breuner | Georg Freiherr von Teufel auf Gundersdorf | Johann Franz Trautson Graf zu Falkenstein | Konrad Balthasar von Starhemberg | Johann Quintin Freiherr von Jörger | Ferdinand Karl Graf von Weltz | Sigmund Friedrich von Khevenhüller | Leopold Johann Victorin Wilhelm Graf von Windisch-Graetz | Johann Ferdinand Graf von Kuefstein
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iSCSI est une abréviation de Internet Small Computer System Interface. C’est un protocole de stockage en réseau basé sur le protocole IP destiné à relier les installations de stockage de données.
En transportant les commandes SCSI sur les réseaux IP, iSCSI est utilisé pour faciliter les transferts de données sur les intranets et gérer le stockage sur de longues distances. iSCSI peut être utilisé pour transmettre des données sur des réseaux locaux (LAN), réseaux étendus (WAN) ou Internet et peut permettre d’être indépendant sur l’emplacement physique du stockage ou de la récupération de données new balance Outlet. Le protocole permet aux clients (appelés initiateurs) d’envoyer des commandes SCSI (CDB) à des périphériques de stockage SCSI (targets) sur des serveurs distants. Il s’agit d’un protocole de SAN (Storage Area Network), qui permet de rassembler les ressources de stockage dans un centre de données tout en donnant l’illusion que le stockage est local.
Contrairement au fibre channel, qui nécessite une infrastructure matérielle dédiée, iSCSI peut s’utiliser en conservant une infrastructure existante.
iSCSI a été standardisé par l’IETF en avril 2004 new balance Outlet.
Au milieu des années 1990, des recherches sont lancées pour étudier la faisabilité de transporter SCSI sur Ethernet. Entre autres sociétés, IBM recherche plusieurs solutions : SCSI sur Ethernet, sur IP et sur TCP/IP. En 1998, un premier prototype de SCSI sur TCP/IP est disponible. Après établissement de l’alliance Cisco-IBM en 1999, ces deux sociétés décident de soumettre à l’IETF une proposition baptisée iSCSI et basée sur les recherches effectuées chez IBM. Cette proposition est soumise en 2000. En 2001, IBM sort le premier équipement de stockage purement iSCSI, l’IP Storage 200i, et Cisco le routeur de stockage SN 5420, passerelle entre iSCSI et Fibre Channel. Microsoft publie ses premiers pilotes pour Windows en juin 2003.
Le protocole iSCSI a mis plusieurs années à venir à bout de sa mauvaise réputation en matière de performance, qui pour une baie disque iSCSI est certes moins bonne qu’une baie en Fibre Channel, mais pour un prix nettement inférieur.
Les éléments composant une infrastructure iSCSI sont de plusieurs types:
Une passerelle iSCSI est un équipement effectuant la conversion entre la pile de protocole iSCSI et la pile Fibre Channel. De telles passerelles sont utilisées actuellement pour accéder à des équipements de stockage incapables de communiquer de manière native en iSCSI. Le tableau suivant donne les dates d’introduction et de retrait de passerelles iSCSI.
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Stonestown Galleria is a 862,000-square-foot (80 free people clothing,100 m2) shopping mall in San Francisco, California, anchored by Nordstrom and Macy’s. The original Stonestown Mall was developed by Stoneson Development Corporation, but the complex is now owned and managed by General Growth Properties, and is located immediately north of San Francisco State University.
Stonestown Galleria, originally Stonestown Shopping Center, was built in 1952 by the Stoneson brothers. It was built in the Lakeside neighborhood, bordering Lake Merced, along with apartments that could house 3,000–3,500 people. The major tenant, the Emporium department store, opened on July 16, 1952. Other early businesses included Walgreens, Butler Brothers, Gallenkamp Shoes, the Red Chimney restaurant and Woolworth’s. There were stores for local residents, including a grocery store[QFI],a bakery, and movie theaters.
The Stoneson brothers’ development firm was also responsible for the later Stoneridge Shopping Center (located in east suburban Pleasanton) and Lakeside Village.
The Stoneston brothers aged and the mall was sold to a pension fund. Stonestown went through a renovation and major redevelopment in 1987, spearheaded by architect John Field. Field’s plan added one story of stores, including a food court, a glass ceiling and marble floors, plus 350 new underground parking spaces. These changes led to the Stonestown Shopping Center being renamed Stonestown Galleria. The Emporium anchor store was converted to Macy’s in 1996 when Macy’s bought The Emporium
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In December 2003, Heitman Financial, the manager, abandoned efforts to construct nearly 300 new residential units and a grocery store on a parcel next to the mall’s 42-acre (170,000 m2) site. Neighborhood groups complained that the project would worsen traffic congestion in the area and create safety and environmental problems. In 2004, General Growth Properties bought the mall from Pacific Acquisition Corp. for $312 million. Today, Stonestown’s 160 in-line shops are fully occupied and generate sales of about $460 per square foot.
Stonestown has two stories and 160 stores. The anchors are two stories, but most in-line stores are one story. The hallways form a plus shape, with Macy’s on the north side, and Nordstrom, Trader Joe’s, Chase, Bank of America, and Sports Authority on the south side. There are four wings, two on level one and two on level two. A food court is on the second story. There are some skylights in the mall. Marble columns adorn the center court. As mentioned earlier, a demolition/rebuilding project in the late 1980s added many of the architectural features seen today.
Coordinates: 37°43′42″N 122°28′38″W / 37.7282°N 122.4771°W / 37.7282; -122.4771
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A Question of Attribution is a 1988 one-act stage play, written by Alan Bennett. It was premièred at the National Theatre, London in December 1988, along with the stage version of An Englishman Abroad. The two plays are collectively called Single Spies.
The one-act play formed the basis of a 1991 television film of the same name broadcast as part of the BBC’s Screen One series. The film was directed by John Schlesinger and stars James Fox as Anthony Blunt, David Calder as Chubb, an MI5 officer, and Prunella Scales as ‘H.M.Q.’ (Queen Elizabeth II). The film was produced by long-time Bennett collaborator Innes Lloyd, and is dedicated to his memory.
The New York Times called the film a “razor-sharp psychological melodrama” and it won the 1992 BAFTA TV award for Best Single Drama. Prunella Scales was nominated for Best Actress.
The play and subsequent film is based on Anthony Blunt’s role in the Cambridge Spy Ring and, as Surveyor of the Queen’s Pictures, personal art advisor to Queen Elizabeth II. It portrays his interrogation by MI5 officers, his work researching and conserving art works, his work at the Courtauld Institute, and his acquaintance with the Queen. Bennett described the piece as an “inquiry in which the circumstances are imaginary but the pictures are real.”
While supervising the restoration of a dual portrait in which only partial attribution to Titian is thought credible, Blunt discovers a third figure that had been painted over by an unknown artist, and concludes by comparison with a better known triple portrait in London’s National Gallery (Allegory of Prudence) that the newly revealed third figure was Titian’s son. As Blunt’s public exposure as a spy in 1979 draws near, the play suggests that he has been made a scapegoat to protect others in the security service. At the end of the film, the time of Blunt’s exposure
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, Blunt tells Chubb that X-rays had revealed the presence of a fourth and fifth man.
One of the sub-texts in the scene with the Queen is whether or not Her Majesty knew that Blunt was a former Soviet spy. They briefly discuss the Dutch Vermeer forger Han van Meegeren, and how his paintings now look like fakes, but were accepted as genuine in the (early) 1940s, and touch on the nature of fakes and secrets. After she has left and an assistant asks what they were talking about, Blunt replies “I was talking about art. I’m not sure that she was.”
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The United States National Forum on Information Literacy defines information literacy as “… the ability to know when there is a need for information, to be able to identify, locate, evaluate, and effectively use that information for the issue or problem at hand.” Other definitions incorporate aspects of “skepticism, judgement, free thinking, questioning, and understanding…” or incorporate competencies that an informed citizen of an information society ought to possess to participate intelligently and actively in that society.
A number of efforts have been made to better define the concept and its relationship to other skills and forms of literacy. Although other educational goals, including traditional literacy, computer literacy, library skills, and critical thinking skills, are related to information literacy and important foundations for its development, information literacy itself is emerging as a distinct skill set and a necessary key to one’s social and economic well-being in an increasingly complex information society. According to McTavish (2009), in order to increase and maximize people’s contributions to a healthy, democratic and pluralistic society and maintain a prosperous and sustainable economy, governments and industries around the world are challenging education systems to focus people’s attention on literacy. In Canada, because of a great focus on a supposed literacy crisis, it has caused some alarm in some educational sectors. Brink (2006) researched government organization, such as Human Resources and Skill Development Canada, claims that almost half of working-age Canadians do not have the literacy skills they need to meet the ever-increasing demands of modern life.
The phrase information literacy first appeared in print in a 1974 report by Paul G. Zurkowski written on behalf of the National Commission on Libraries and Information Science. Zurkowski used the phrase to describe the “techniques and skills” learned by the information literate “for utilizing the wide range of information tools as well as primary sources in molding information solutions to their problems” and drew a relatively firm line between the “literates” and “information illiterates”.
The Presidential Committee on Information Literacy released a report on January 10, 1989, outlining the importance of information literacy, opportunities to develop information literacy, and an Information Age School. The report’s final name is the Presidential Committee on Information Literacy: Final Report.
The recommendations of the Presidential Committee led to the creation later that year of the National Forum on Information Literacy, a coalition of more than 90 national and international organizations.
In 1998, the American Association of School Librarians and the Association for Educational Communications and Technology published Information Power: Building Partnerships for Learning, which further established specific goals for information literacy education, defining some nine standards in the categories of “information literacy”, “independent learning”, and “social responsibility”.
Also in 1998, the Presidential Committee on Information Literacy produced an update on its Final Report. This update outlined the six main recommendations of the original report and examined areas where it made progress and areas that still needed work. The updated report supports further information literacy advocacy and reiterates its importance.
In 1999, the Society of College, National and University Libraries (SCONUL) in the UK, published “The Seven Pillars of Information Literacy” model to “facilitate further development of ideas amongst practitioners in the field … stimulate debate about the ideas and about how those ideas might be used by library and other staff in higher education concerned with the development of students’ skills.” A number of other countries have developed information literacy standards since then.
In 2003, the National Forum on Information Literacy, together with UNESCO and the National Commission on Libraries and Information Science, sponsored an international conference in Prague with representatives from some twenty-three countries to discuss the importance of information literacy within a global context. The resulting Prague Declaration described information literacy as a “key to social, cultural, and economic development of nations and communities
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, institutions and individuals in the 21st century” and declared its acquisition as “part of the basic human right of life long learning”.
The Alexandria Proclamation linked Information literacy with lifelong learning. More than that, it sets Information Literacy as a basic Human right that it “promotes social inclusion of all nations”.
On May 28, 2009, U.S. California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed Executive Order S-06-09, establishing a California ICT Digital Literacy Leadership Council, which in turn, was directed to establish an ICT Digital Literacy Advisory Committee. “The Leadership Council, in consultation with the Advisory Committee, shall develop an ICT Digital Literacy Policy, to ensure that California residents are digitally literate.” The Executive Order states further: “ICT Digital Literacy is defined as using digital technology, communications tools and/or networks to access, manage, integrate, evaluate, create, and communicate information in order to function in a knowledge-based economy and society…” The Governor directs “…The Leadership Council, in consultation with the Advisory Committee… [to] develop a California Action Plan for ICT Digital Literacy (Action Plan).” He also directs “The California Workforce Investment Board (WIB)… [to] develop a technology literacy component for its five-year Strategic State Plan.” His Executive Order ends with the following: “I FURTHER REQUEST that the Legislature and Superintendent of Public Instruction consider adopting similar goals, and that they join the Leadership Council in issuing a “Call to Action” to schools, higher education institutions, employers, workforce training agencies, local governments, community organizations, and civic leaders to advance California as a global leader in ICT Digital Literacy”.
Information literacy rose to national consciousness in the U.S. with President Barack Obama’s Proclamation designating October 2009 as National Information Literacy Awareness Month. President Obama’s Proclamation stated that
“Rather than merely possessing data, we must also learn the skills necessary to acquire, collate, and evaluate information for any situation… Though we may know how to find the information we need, we must also know how to evaluate it. Over the past decade, we have seen a crisis of authenticity emerge. We now live in a world where anyone can publish an opinion or perspective, whether true or not, and have that opinion amplified within the information marketplace. At the same time, Americans have unprecedented access to the diverse and independent sources of information, as well as institutions such as libraries and universities, that can help separate truth from fiction and signal from noise.”
Obama’s proclamation ended with:
“Now, therefore, I, Barack Obama, President of the United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim October 2009 as National Information Literacy Awareness Month. I call upon the people of the United States to recognize the important role information plays in our daily lives, and appreciate the need for a greater understanding of its impact.”
The Presidential Committee on Information Literacy was formed in 1987 by the American Library Association’s president at the time Margaret Chisholm. The committee was formed with three specific purposes
The American Library Association’s Presidential Committee on Information Literacy defined information literacy as the ability “to recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate, and use effectively the needed information” and highlighted information literacy as a skill essential for lifelong learning and the production of an informed and prosperous citizenry.
The committee outlined six principal recommendations: to “reconsider the ways we have organized information institutionally, structured information access, and defined information’s role in our lives at home in the community, and in the work place”; to promote “public awareness of the problems created by information illiteracy”; to develop a national research agenda related to information and its use; to ensure the existence of “a climate conducive to students’ becoming information literate”; to include information literacy concerns in teacher education; and to promote public awareness of the relationship between information literacy and the more general goals of “literacy, productivity, and democracy.”
In March 1998 the Presidential Committee on Information Literacy re-evaluated its Final Report and published an update. The update looks at what the Final Report set out to accomplish, its six main goals, and how far it had come to that point in meeting those objectives. Before identifying what still needs to be done, the updated report recognizes what the previous report and the National Forum were able to accomplish. In realizing it still had not met all objectives, it set out further recommendations to ensure all were met. The updated report ends with an invitation, asking the National Forum and regular citizens to recognize that “the result of these combined efforts will be a citizenry which is made up of effective lifelong learners who can always find the information needed for the issue or decision at hand. This new generation of information literate citizens will truly be America’s most valuable resource”, and to continue working toward an information literate world.
One of the most important things to come out of the Presidential Committee on Information Literacy was the creation of the National Forum on Information Literacy.
In 1983, the seminal report “A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform” declared that a “rising tide of mediocrity” was eroding the very foundations of the American educational system. It was, in fact, the genesis of the current educational reform movement within the United States. Ironically, the report did not include in its set of reform recommendations the academic and/or the public library as one of the key architects in the redesign of our K-16 educational system. This report and several others that followed, in conjunction with the rapid emergence of the information society, led the American Library Association (ALA) to convene a blue ribbon panel of national educators and librarians in 1987. The ALA Presidential Committee on Information Literacy was charged with the following tasks: (1) to define information literacy within the higher literacies and its importance to student performance, lifelong learning, and active citizenship; (2) to design one or more models for information literacy development appropriate to formal and informal learning environments throughout people’s lifetimes; and (3) to determine implications for the continuing education and development of teachers. In the release of its Final Report in 1989, the American Library Association Presidential Committee on Information Literacy summarized in its opening paragraphs the ultimate mission of the National Forum on Information Literacy:
“How our country deals with the realities of the Information Age will have enormous impact on our democratic way of life and on our nation’s ability to compete internationally. Within America’s information society, there also exists the potential of addressing many long-standing social and economic inequities. To reap such benefits, people—as individuals and as a nation—must be information literate. To be information literate, a person must be able to recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate, and use effectively the needed information. Producing such a citizenry will require that schools and colleges appreciate and integrate the concept of information literacy into their learning programs and that they play a leadership role in equipping individuals and institutions to take advantage of the opportunities inherent within the information society.
Ultimately, information literate people are those who have learned how to learn. They know how to learn because they know how knowledge is organized, how to find information, and how to use information in such a way that others can learn from them. They are people prepared for lifelong learning because they can always find the information needed for any task or decision at hand.”
Acknowledging that the major obstacle to people becoming information literate citizens, who are prepared for lifelong learning, “is a lack of public awareness of the problems created by information illiteracy,” the report recommended the formation of a coalition of national organizations to promote information literacy.”
Thus, in 1989, the A.L.A. Presidential Committee established the National Forum on Information Literacy which is a volunteer network of organizations committed to raising public awareness on the importance of information literacy to individuals, to our diverse communities, to our economy, and to engage citizenship participation.
Since 1989, the National Forum on Information Literacy has evolved steadily under the leadership of its first chair, Dr. Patricia Senn Breivik. Today, the Forum represents over 90 national and international organizations, all dedicated to mainstreaming the philosophy of information literacy across national and international landscapes,and throughout every educational, domestic, and workplace venue.
Although the initial intent of the Forum was to raise public awareness and support on a national level, over the last several years, the National Forum on Information Literacy has made significant strides internationally in promoting the importance of integrating information literacy concepts and skills throughout all educational, governmental, and workforce development programs. For example, the National Forum co-sponsored with UNESCO and IFLA several “experts meetings”, resulting in the Prague Declaration (2003) and the Alexandria Proclamation (2005) each underscoring the importance of information literacy as a basic fundamental human right and lifelong learning skill.
In the United States, however, information literacy skill development has been the exception and not the rule, particularly as it relates to the integration of information literacy practices within our educational and workforce development infrastructures. In a 2000 peer reviewed publication, Nell K. Duke, found that students in first grade classrooms were exposed to an average of 3.6 minutes of informational text in a school day. In October 2006, the first national Summit on Information Literacy brought together well over 100 representatives from education, business, and government to address America’s information literacy deficits as a nation currently competing in a global marketplace. This successful collaboration was sponsored by the National Forum on Information Literacy, Committee for Economic Development, Educational Testing Service, the Institute for a Competitive Workforce, and National Education Association (NEA). The Summit was held at NEA headquarters in Washington, D.C.
A major outcome of the Summit was the establishment of a national ICT literacy policy council to provide leadership in creating national standards for ICT literacy in the United States.
As stated on the Forum’s Main Web page, it recognizes that achieving information literacy has been much easier for those with money and other advantages. For those who are poor, non-White, older, disabled, living in rural areas or otherwise disadvantaged, it has been much harder to overcome the digital divide. A number of the Forum’s members address the specific challenges for those disadvantaged. For example, The Children’s Partnership advocates for the nearly 70 million children and youth in the country, many of whom are disadvantaged. The Children’s Partnership currently runs three programs, two of which specifically address the needs of those with low-incomes: Online content for Low-Income and Underserved Americans Initiative, and the California Initiative Program. Another example is the National Hispanic Council on Aging which is:
Dedicated to improving the quality of life for Latino elderly, families, and communities through advocacy, capacity and institution building, development of educational materials, technical assistance, demonstration projects, policy analysis and research (National Hispanic Council on Aging, and, Mission Statement section).
The National Forum on Information Literacy will continue to work closely with educational, business, and non-profit organizations in the U.S. to promote information literacy skill development at every opportunity, particularly in light of the ever growing social, economic, and political urgency of globalization, prompting citizens to re-energize our promotional and collaborative efforts.
IFLA has established an Information Literacy Section. The Section has, in turn, developed and mounted an Information Literacy Resources Directory, called InfoLit Global. Librarians, educators and information professionals may self-register and upload information-literacy-related materials (IFLA, Information Literacy Section, n.d.) According to the IFLA website, “The primary purpose of the Information Literacy Section is to foster international cooperation in the development of information literacy education in all types of libraries and information institutions.”
This alliance was created from the recommendation of the Prague Conference of Information Literacy Experts in 2003. One of its goals is to allow for the sharing of information literacy research and knowledge between nations. The IAIL also sees “life-long learning” as a basic human right, and their ultimate goal is to use information literacy as a way to allow everyone to participate in the “Information Society” as a way of fulfilling this right. The following organizations are founding members of IAIL:
According to the UNESCO website, this is their “action to provide people with the skills and abilities for critical reception, assessment and use of information and media in their professional and personal lives.” Their goal is to create information literate societies by creating and maintaining educational policies for information literacy. They work with teachers around the world, training them in the importance of information literacy and providing resources for them to use in their classrooms.
UNESCO publishes studies on information literacy in many countries, looking at how information literacy is currently taught, how it differs in different demographics, and how to raise awareness. They also publish pedagogical tools and curricula for school boards and teachers to refer to and use.
In “Information Literacy as a Liberal Art”, Jeremy J. Shapiro and Shelley K. Hughes advocated a more holistic approach to information literacy education, one that encouraged not merely the addition of information technology courses as an adjunct to existing curricula, but rather a radically new conceptualization of “our entire educational curriculum in terms of information”.
Drawing upon Enlightenment ideals like those articulated by Enlightenment philosopher Condorcet, Shapiro and Hughes argued that information literacy education is “essential to the future of democracy, if citizens are to be intelligent shapers of the information society rather than its pawns, and to humanistic culture, if information is to be part of a meaningful existence rather than a routine of production and consumption”.
To this end, Shapiro and Hughes outlined a “prototype curriculum” that encompassed the concepts of computer literacy, library skills, and “a broader, critical conception of a more humanistic sort”, suggesting seven important components of a holistic approach to information literacy:
Ira Shor further defines critical literacy as “[habits] of thought, reading, writing, and speaking which go beneath surface meaning, first impressions, dominant myths, official pronouncements, traditional clichés, received wisdom, and mere opinions, to understand the deep meaning, root causes, social context, ideology, and personal consequences of any action, event, object, process, organization, experience, text, subject matter, policy, mass media, or discourse”.
Based on the Big6 by Mike Eisenberg and Bob Berkowitz.
1. The first step in the Information Literacy strategy is to clarify and understand the requirements of the problem or task for which information is sought. Basic questions asked at this stage:
2. Locating: The second step is to identify sources of information and to find those resources. Depending upon the task, sources that will be helpful may vary. Sources may include books, encyclopedias, maps, almanacs, etc. Sources may be in electronic, print, social bookmarking tools, or other formats.
3. Selecting/analyzing: Step three involves examining the resources that were found. The information must be determined to be useful or not useful in solving the problem. The useful resources are selected and the inappropriate resources are rejected.
4.Organizing/synthesizing: It is in the fourth step this information which has been selected is organized and processed so that knowledge and solutions are developed. Examples of basic steps in this stage are:
5.Creating/presenting: In step five the information or solution is presented to the appropriate audience in an appropriate format. A paper is written. A presentation is made. Drawings, illustrations, and graphs are presented.
6. Evaluating: The final step in the Information Literacy strategy involves the critical evaluation of the completion of the task or the new understanding of the concept. Was the problem solved? Was new knowledge found? What could have been done differently? What was done well?
The Big6 skills have been used in a variety of settings to help those with a variety of needs. For example, the library of Dubai Women’s College, in Dubai, United Arab Emirates which is an English as a second language institution, uses the Big6 model for its information literacy workshops. According to Story-Huffman (2009), using Big6 at the college “has transcended cultural and physical boundaries to provide a knowledge base to help students become information literate” (para. 8). In primary grades, Big6 has been found to work well with variety of cognitive and language levels found in the classroom.
Differentiated instruction and the Big6 appear to be made for each other. While it seems as though all children will be on the same Big6 step at the same time during a unit of instruction, there is no reason students cannot work through steps at an individual pace. In addition, the Big 6 process allows for seamless differentiation by interest.
A number of weaknesses in the Big6 approach have been highlighted by Philip Doty:
This approach is problem-based, is designed to fit into the context of Benjamin Bloom’s taxonomy of cognitive objectives, and aims toward the development of critical thinking. While the Big6 approach has a great deal of power, it also has serious weaknesses. Chief among these are the fact that users often lack well-formed statements of information needs, as well as the model’s reliance on problem-solving rhetoric. Often, the need for information and its use are situated in circumstances that are not as well-defined, discrete, and monolithic as problems.
Eisenberg (2004) has recognized that there are a number of challenges to effectively applying the Big6 skills, not the least of which is information overload which can overwhelm students. Part of Eisenberg’s solution is for schools to help students become discriminating users of information.
This conception, used primarily in the library and information studies field, and rooted in the concepts of library instruction and bibliographic instruction, is the ability “to recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate and use effectively the needed information”. In this view, information literacy is the basis for lifelong learning.
In the publication Information power: Building partnerships for learning (AASL and AECT, 1998), three categories, nine standards, and twenty-nine indicators are used to describe the information literate student. The categories and their standards are as follows:
Category 1: Information Literacy
Category 2: Independent Learning
Category 3: Social Responsibility
Since information may be presented in a number of formats, the term “information” applies to more than just the printed word. Other literacies such as visual, media, computer, network, and basic literacies are implicit in information literacy.
Many of those who are in most need of information literacy are often amongst those least able to access the information they require:
Minority and at-risk students, illiterate adults, people with English as a second language, and economically disadvantaged people are among those most likely to lack access to the information that can improve their situations. Most are not even aware of the potential help that is available to them.
As the Presidential Committee report points out, members of these disadvantaged groups are often unaware that libraries can provide them with the access, training and information they need. In Osborne (2004) many libraries around the country are finding numerous ways to reach many of these disadvantaged groups by discovering their needs in their own environments (including prisons) and offering them specific services in the libraries themselves.
The rapidly evolving information landscape has demonstrated a need for education methods and practices to evolve and adapt accordingly. Information literacy is a key focus of educational institutions at all levels and in order to uphold this standard, institutions are promoting a commitment to lifelong learning and an ability to seek out and identify innovations that will be needed to keep pace with or outpace changes.
Educational methods and practices, within our increasingly information-centric society, must facilitate and enhance a student’s ability to harness the power of information. Key to harnessing the power of information is the ability to evaluate information, to ascertain among other things its relevance, authenticity and modernity. The information evaluation process is crucial life skill and a basis for lifelong learning. According to Lankshear and Knobel, what is needed in our education system is a new understanding of literacy, information literacy and on literacy teaching. Educators need to learn to account for the context of our culturally and linguistically diverse and increasingly globalized societies. We also need to take account for the burgeoning variety of text forms associated with information and multimedia technologies.
Evaluation consists of several component processes including metacognition, goals, personal disposition, cognitive development, deliberation, and decision-making. This is both a difficult and complex challenge and underscores the importance of being able to think critically.
Critical thinking is an important educational outcome for students. Education institutions have experimented with several strategies to help foster critical thinking, as a means to enhance information evaluation and information literacy among students. When evaluating evidence, students should be encouraged to practice formal argumentation. Debates and formal presentations must also be encouraged to analyze and critically evaluate information.
Education professionals must underscore the importance of high information quality. Students must be trained to distinguish between fact and opinion. They must be encouraged to use cue words such as “I think” and “I feel” to help distinguish between factual information and opinions. Information related skills that are complex or difficult to comprehend must be broken down into smaller parts. Another approach would be to train students in familiar contexts. Education professionals should encourage students to examine “causes” of behaviors, actions and events. Research shows that people evaluate more effectively if causes are revealed, where available.
Some call for increased critical analysis in Information Literacy instruction. Smith (2013) identifies this as beneficial “to individuals, particularly young people during their period of formal education. It could equip them with the skills they need to understand the political system and their place within it, and, where necessary, to challenge this” (p. 16).
National content standards, state standards, and information literacy skills terminology may vary, but all have common components relating to information literacy.
Information literacy skills are critical to several of the National Education Goals outlined in the Goals 2000: Educate America Act, particularly in the act’s aims to increase “school readiness”, “student achievement and citizenship”, and “adult literacy and lifelong learning”. Of specific relevance are the “focus on lifelong learning, the ability to think critically, and on the use of new and existing information for problem solving”, all of which are important components of information literacy.
In 1998, the American Association of School Librarians and the Association for Educational Communications and Technology published “Information Literacy Standards for Student Learning”, which identified nine standards that librarians and teachers in K-12 schools could use to describe information literate students and define the relationship of information literacy to independent learning and social responsibility:
In 2007 AASL expanded and restructured the standards that school librarians should strive for in their teaching. These were published as “Standards for the 21st Century Learner” and address several literacies: information, technology, visual, textual, and digital. These aspects of literacy were organized within four key goals: that “learners use of skills, resources, & tools” to “inquire, think critically, and gain knowledge”; to “draw conclusions, make informed decisions, apply knowledge to new situations, and create new knowledge”; to “share knowledge and participate ethically and productively as members of our democratic society”; and to “pursue personal and aesthetic growth”.
In 2000, the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL), a division of the American Library Association (ALA), released “Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education”, describing five standards and numerous performance indicators considered best practices for the implementation and assessment of postsecondary information literacy programs. The five standards are:
These standards are meant to span from the simple to more complicated, or in terms of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, from the “lower order” to the “higher order”. Lower order skills would involve for instance being able to use an online catalog to find a book relevant to an information need in an academic library. Higher order skills would involve critically evaluating and synthesizing information from multiple sources into a coherent interpretation or argument.
Today instruction methods have changed drastically from the mostly one-directional teacher-student model, to a more collaborative approach where the students themselves feel empowered. Much of this challenge is now being informed by the American Association of School Librarians that published new standards for student learning in 2007.
Within the K-12 environment, effective curriculum development is vital to imparting Information Literacy skills to students. Given the already heavy load on students, efforts must be made to avoid curriculum overload. Eisenberg strongly recommends adopting a collaborative approach to curriculum development among classroom teachers, librarians, technology teachers, and other educators. Staff must be encouraged to work together to analyze student curriculum needs, develop a broad instruction plan, set information literacy goals, and design specific unit and lesson plans that integrate the information skills and classroom content. These educators can also collaborate on teaching and assessment duties
Educators are selecting various forms of resource-based learning (authentic learning, problem-based learning and work-based learning) to help students focus on the process and to help students learn from the content. Information literacy skills are necessary components of each. Within a school setting, it is very important that a students’ specific needs as well as the situational context be kept in mind when selecting topics for integrated information literacy skills instruction. The primary goal should be to provide frequent opportunities for students to learn and practice information problem solving. To this extent, it is also vital to facilitate repetition of information seeking actions and behavior. The importance of repetition in information literacy lesson plans cannot be underscored, since we tend to learn through repetition. A students’ proficiency will improve over time if they are afforded regular opportunities to learn and to apply the skills they have learnt.
The process approach to education is requiring new forms of student assessment. Students demonstrate their skills, assess their own learning, and evaluate the processes by which this learning has been achieved by preparing portfolios, learning and research logs, and using rubrics.
Information literacy efforts are underway on individual, local, and regional bases.
Many states have either fully adopted AASL information literacy standards or have adapted them to suit their needs. States such as Oregon (OSLIS, 2009) increasing rely on these guidelines for curriculum development and setting information literacy goals. Virginia, on the other hand, chose to undertake a comprehensive review, involving all relevant stakeholders and formulate it own guidelines and standards for information literacy. At an international level, two framework documents jointly produced by UNESCO and the IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions) developed two framework documents that laid the foundations in helping define the educational role to be played by school libraries: the School library manifesto (1999),.
Another immensely popular approach to imparting information literacy is the Big6 set of skills. Eisenberg claims that the Big6 is the most widely used model in K-12 education. This set of skills seeks to articulate the entire information seeking life cycle. The Big6 is made up of six major stages and two sub-stages under each major stages. It defines the six steps as being: task definition, information seeking strategies, location and access, use of information, synthesis, and evaluation. Such approaches seek to cover the full range of information problem-solving actions that a person would normally undertake, when faced with an information problem or with making a decision based on available resources.
Information literacy instruction in higher education can take a variety of forms: stand-alone courses or classes, online tutorials, workbooks, course-related instruction, or course-integrated instruction. One attempt in the area of physics was published in 2009.
The six regional accreditation boards have added information literacy to their standards, Librarians often are required to teach the concepts of information literacy during “one shot” classroom lectures. There are also credit courses offered by academic librarians to prepare college students to become information literate.
Now that information literacy has become a part of the core curriculum at many post-secondary institutions, it is incumbent upon the library community to be able to provide information literacy instruction in a variety of formats, including online learning and distance education. The Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) addresses this need in its Guidelines for Distance Education Services (2000):
Library resources and services in institutions of higher education must meet the needs of all their faculty, students, and academic support staff, wherever these individuals are located, whether on a main campus, off campus, in distance education or extended campus programs—or in the absence of a campus at all, in courses taken for credit or non-credit; in continuing education programs; in courses attended in person or by means of electronic transmission; or any other means of distance education.
Within the e-learning and distance education worlds, providing effective information literacy programs brings together the challenges of both distance librarianship and instruction. With the prevalence of course management systems such as WebCT and Blackboard, library staff are embedding information literacy training within academic programs and within individual classes themselves.
There are several national and international conferences dedicated to information literacy. There is an annual satellite conference associated with the IFLA World Library and Information Congress organised by the IFLA Information Literacy Section. Within the UK, since 2005 there has been a Librarians’ Information Literacy Annual Conference, or LILAC for short, organised by an Information Literacy Group that is now a special interest group of CILIP. The European Conference on Information Literacy, or ECIL held its first conference during October 2013 in Istanbul, Turkey. Most recently, the 14th annual Information Literacy Summit was held at Moraine Valley Community College in Palos Hills, IL.
45. Bruce, C.S. (1997). ¹he Seven Faces of Information ¸iteracy. Adelaide: Auslib Press
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This article describes the history of three railway companies in Scotland:
The railways served sparsely populated areas of south west Scotland; the PPR and the Joint Railway, often known as the Port Road, linked Dumfries, via Castle Douglas, with the port towns of Portpatrick and Stranraer. It also formed part of a route by rail and sea from England and Scotland to the north of Ireland.
The line was single track throughout, serving a region of very low population density, but it achieved significance by carrying heavy traffic, both passenger and goods, to and from northern Irish destinations through Portpatrick and Stranraer. The line closed in 1965 apart from the short section from Stranraer Harbour to Challoch Junction, which continues in use as part of the Glasgow – Ayr – Stranraer route.
As early as 1620 Portpatrick had been established as the port for the short sea route between south-west Scotland and the north of Ireland, at Donaghadee in County Down. Irish cattle and horses were a dominant traffic early on, and Post Office mails developed later: by 1838 8,000 to 10,000 letters passed through the port daily, brought by road coach from Dumfries, and from Glasgow. A barracks was erected in the town to facilitate troop movements. However the limitations of the little harbour became serious disadvantages as other more efficient rail-connected routes, via Liverpool, and later Holyhead became dominant. Portpatrick’s nearest railhead was Ayr, 60 miles (96 km) away, and the Post Office discontinued use of Portpatrick for mails from 30 September 1849; much of the livestock traffic had already moved to other routes.
The Glasgow and South Western Railway (G&SWR) was formed by amalgamation in 1850, on the opening of the main line which ran from Glasgow via Kilmarnock and Dumfries to Carlisle. When local interests promoted a railway branching from it at Dumfries and running to Castle Douglas, the G&SWR actively supported it, in fact subscribing £60,000 towards the little Company’s capital. The G&SWR motives appear to have been a desire to secure the territory from their rival, the Caledonian Railway, as well as the formation of a first section of a route to Portpatrick. The Castle Douglas and Dumfries Railway (CD&DR) opened on 7 November 1859 and was worked from the outset by the G&SWR.
The larger Company soon made advances to take over the CD&DR, and did so (formally on the basis of an amalgamation) on 1 August 1865.
On 30 April 1856, before the CD&DR obtained its authorising Act of Parliament, a meeting was held in Wigtown at which it was agreed that Wigtownshire and Kirkcudbrightshire[note 2] needed a railway connection, and on 26 May 1856 it was decided to build a railway to Dumfries; the intention included connecting Portpatrick to the national railway network, with a view to reviving the Donaghadee route. The Government indicated tentative support for such a sea connection, and for improving the harbour at Portpatrick, so the Committee proceeded ; on 19 September 1856 plans for the route of the British and Irish Grand Junction Railway were tabled. By now the CD&DR had obtained its authorising Act and the Portpatrick line would join it at Castle Douglas instead of going independently to Dumfries. The route east of Newton Stewart took a markedly northerly course through bleak terrain, and this may have been to avoid competing with coastal steamers on a more southerly alignment.
While there was much enthusiasm locally for the new venture, it was important to obtain financial support from investors elsewhere. For a while the Great Northern Railway (GNR) was leading, offering £160,000. At the time the GNR was no closer than Bradford, but it sought alliances and for a time had hopes of forming its own trunk route to Scotland and the north of Ireland. This was ended when the G&SWR made it clear it would refuse running powers between Gretna Junction and Castle Douglas.
The Bill for the new line went to Parliament in the 1857 session, but the grand title was changed to the more modest Portpatrick Railway (PPR). With little opposition it obtained its authorising Act on 10 August 1857. Capital was to be £460,000 with borrowing powers of £150,000, and three railways were required[note 3] to subscribe funds: the Lancaster and Carlisle Railway (£40,000), the G&SWR (£60,000), and the Belfast and County Down Railway (£15,000). (Those three railways had the option of subscribing more in addition.) The main line was to be 60 miles 60 chains (98 km) in length from Castle Douglas to Portpatrick, with two short branches: to the west quay at Stranraer, and to the north pier at Portpatrick.
The construction process was put in hand, but the available funds were not sufficient to complete the line, and the PPR approached the other railways for further financial support; the Lancaster and Carlisle was reluctant but was urged by its sponsoring company, the London and North Western Railway to do so. The G&SWR subscribed an additional £40,000.
Towards the end of the construction period the PR gave consideration to the working arrangements. The G&SWR were authorised to work the line by the original Act, and had offered to do so for 72% of gross receipts. This charge was considered excessive and negotiations took place which the PPR board considered unsatisfactory. On 28 March 1860 they decided that “the board should retain the working of the line under their own management” Evidently this had been foreseen, and provisional arrangements for the supply of locomotives had already been made, and this was quickly followed by contracts for rolling stock and for signalling equipment. The G&SWR had been confident that its terms for working the line would have to be accepted, and it was now angry at the emerging decision. It had subscribed £60,000 to the PPR on the assumption that the little Company would effectively belong to it, and had promised a further £40,000: it now made that sum conditional on an impossible contribution by the Belfast and County Down Railway. The breach was irreconcilable, made more so by the fact that the acid correspondence between the two companies was published as a pamphlet. Dalrymple, as Chairman, told his shareholders that the loss of the £40,000, though “attended with great inconvenience” need not “make any material, or at least, permanent, financial embarrassment”.
So the PPR made its own arrangements, and early in 1861 Captain H W Tyler made the formal inspection of the line over a three-day period. His only significant adverse comment was that the rail joints were not fished.[note 4] The line was single throughout, worked by telegraph order; crossing stations were at Castle Douglas, New Galloway, Creetown, Newton Stewart, Glenluce and Stranraer. A shareholders’ special train ran on 11 March 1861 and a full public service started the following day, consisting of two passenger trains each way between Stranraer and Castle Douglas, and probably one goods train. The line had not yet opened to Portpatrick itself. The passenger trains conveyed three classes of passenger. In November the passenger service was augmented to three trains each way, possibly by converting the goods train to mixed operation. At this time the motive power fleet consisted of three 0-4-2 mixed traffic tender locomotives and an 0-6-0 locomotive loaned by the LNWR.
In the Parliamentary Act authorising the PPR, a clause had been entered penalising the Company if the short branch to the north pier at Portpatrick was not completed by August 1862. The Company had accepted this obligation on the understanding that the Government would improve the little harbour to enable efficient working of mail and other shipping. This work was essential also to railway operation, as the available land for a terminal was very cramped. A change of Government policy began to suggest that the harbour improvement works might not be funded, and the PPR, with limited funds for building its line, was alarmed that their obligation might be to build an unusable branch line; accordingly they had not built any of the main line from Stranraer. However, in 1861 the Government did in fact put the work in hand, and the PPR now accelerated completion of their lines, and the line opened on 28 August 1862, after a Board of Trade inspection on 1 August 1862. The line ran to a town terminus at Portpatrick. To reach the harbour itself, a headshunt was provided beyond the station; a backshunt from there led to the harbour; due to the cramped site the headshunt was only sufficient for an engine and two coaches. The ordinary Portpatrick station was informally referred to as “the high station”; the line to the harbour descended very steeply, and was a plain single line without sidings.
The harbour improvement works seemed to have been suspended and there was no sign of the transfer of the Post Office mail traffic—the original motivation for the entire PPR—to the route. There is no evidence of any passenger or goods terminal building on the harbour branch and it seems likely that the PPR was doing the minimum to comply with the legal obligation, having realised that the Government-funded harbour improvements were now in doubt.
There were two daily trains in each direction between Stranraer and Portpatrick, one each way conveying goods also, but in October an express, not conveying Parliamentary (third class) passengers, was put on between Castle Douglas and Stranraer, making connection there with an Irish ferry. The burgh of Stranraer had constructed a “north landing place” and the PPR had built a deviation to the original Stranraer Pier branch to serve it. Although the sea passage from Stranraer to Irish destinations was longer than from Portpatrick, Stranraer was naturally sheltered and there was much more space for pier and railway accommodation. The Belfast and County Down Railway was extending its line to Larne on the north side of Belfast Lough and it appeared likely that a Stranraer – Larne ferry service would be more advantageous than a Portpatrick – Donaghadee one.
The “north landing place” became known as the East Pier and rail connection with it was established, boat trains to and from Castle Douglas (with connections for Carlisle) started on 1 October 1862. This was in advance of the Board of Trade inspection by Captain Tyler, on 2 December 1862, when he reported “that the opening of this branch would be attended with danger to the public using it by reason of the incompleteness of the works”. The PPR continued to operate the short branch nonetheless. However the ferry service was loss-making, and was discontinued (together with the boat trains) from 31 December 1863.
The PPR itself was losing money too; the 1862 – 1863 revenue account showed a loss of £1,073 on turnover of £9,464.
The town of Kirkcudbright was some way from the growing railway network, and in 1861 local interests presented a bill to Parliament for a line from Castle Douglas; the Kirkcudbright Railway was authorised by Act of 1 August 1861. It was to run from Castle Douglas to Kirkcudbright. It opened for goods traffic on 17 February 1864, and to passengers on 15 August 1864. It was absorbed by the G&SWR the following year, on 1 August 1865.
The PPR was now (in 1863) in the position of having expended all its capital on building the line (and having been deprived of some promised funds from the G&SWR); losing money on revenue account; finding that the promised boom in mail traffic through Portpatrick was illusory; and observing that the Stranraer – Larne ferry was on the point of closing down. Moreover, the business of operating the railway directly had proven more complex and expensive than had been anticipated.
At this time the G&SWR approached the PPR, offering to subscribe the denied £40,000 after all. It did so on 15 December 1863. Its motivation for this change of heart was alarm that the Dumfries, Lochmaben and Lockerbie Railway had opened (on 1 September); that company was worked by the Caledonian Railway (CR), which therefore had access to Dumfries, and the PPR had asked the G&SWR for running powers over the CD&DR line, clearly intending to link with the CR. (The facility had been refused.) The G&SWR now hoped to acquire the PPR to fend off its rival. The PPR Directors were aggrieved at the bad faith of the G&SWR over the £40,000 subscription, and negotiated with the CR, who offered generous terms including the subscription of £40,000, matching the G&SWR offer. Provisional agreement to the working arrangement with the CR was finalised, and a Parliamentary Bill was prepared by the PPR, seeking running powers over the CD&DR line (and the short section of G&SWR at Dumfries); the Bill also sought to regularise the Stranraer East Pier, and to substantially increase authorised share capital. The Bill was passed by Parliament and became the Portpatrick Railway Act (No. 1) on 29 July 1864. The running powers had been secured. The working arrangement with the CR took effect on 4 December 1864.[note 5]
The Caledonian Railway lost no time in imposing its presence; through traffic to Glasgow and Edinburgh was routed via Lockerbie and the CR. The CR was responsible for maintaining the PPR line, but soon requested additional facilities, such as siding accommodation at Stranraer and additional crossing places. The actual intermediate passing places were New Galloway, Dromore, Creetown, Newton Stewart and Glenluce. The CR wanted to add Crossmichael, Loch Skerrow, Kirkcowan and Dunragit. The PPR had imagined that signing the Working Agreement would release it from expenses like this, and in any case hardly had any money to extend its facilities.
In this period the line was operated by train despatcher (rather than by a train staff system) until the late 1880s.
Smith describes an incident illustrating the primitive state of Portpatrick Railway resources:
Portpatrick was a brute of a place to get out of—a great grinding curve, and an up-grade of 1 in 57, the whole in full track of the westerly gales, even in the rock cutting where the blow hole up at the Tailor’s Peak let the salt spray in to coat the rails. The old single [probably 2-2-2 no. 7] was coming up, and, not unusually, stuck. “Get back an’ half yer train” instructed the driver. “H’ye a saaa?” inquired the fireman.Truly a saw would have been necessary, for they had only one coach on!”
The Portpatrick Railway gave ready access from Portpatrick and Stranraer to Dumfries and English locations, but connection from the City of Glasgow was ill-served. On 5 July 1865 an Act authorising the Girvan and Portpatrick Junction Railway (G&PJR) received the Royal Assent; it would join with existing routes via Ayr, and connect in to the PPR at Challoch Junction, about 6½ miles (10½ km) east of Stranraer. At first this was treated amicably by the PPR as it would shoulder a share of the costs of the port facilities at Stranraer and bring in mileage fees for the through running, but when the G&PJR agreed with the G&SWR to work its line, the Caledonian Railway, working the PPR line, became defensive. The G&PJR started public operation on 5 October 1877 in the face of CR obstruction.
Heavy expenditure on enhanced signalling and other works were incurred by the PPR, to be paid for by the G&PJR. However that Company was in deep financial difficulties, even more so than the PPR, and the matter went to the Court of Session. Notice of Interdict was served on 1 February 1882 and from 7 February G&PJR trains were not allowed to run over the PPR. The G&PJR terminated both passenger and goods trains at New Luce and the gap was covered by road transport.
The G&PJR managed to raise some money and cleared most of the indebtedness, and through train running resumed from 1 August 1883.
Convinced that Irish traffic would be profitable, the CR acquired two small paddle steamers and operated a service between Stranraer and Belfast from 4 December 1865. The PPR was prevailed upon to support this venture financially; but Irish traffic suffered a severe decline at this time and when one of the steamers suffered damage during a crossing on 21 January 1868, the decision was taken to suspend the ferry operation. Once again the purpose of the PPR—to connect with Ireland—was frustrated. An independent company, the Donaghadee and Portpatrick Steam Packet Company now started a service, with a single vessel making at first two round trips daily from 13 July 1868, cut back to one daily round trip from 21 September, but then discontinued from 31 October 1868. It appears likely that connecting trains used the ordinary Portpatrick station, not the Harbour terminal.
During this period the Government’s intentions regarding the use of Portpatrick as a mail terminal clarified: there was now no prospect of this happening, and when the Government offered compensation of £20,000 and the transfer of ownership of the harbour at Portpatrick to the PPR, these terms were accepted as the best that could be obtained. The Caledonian Railway proposed that this be regarded as income of the line, to which they would be entitled. As they had accepted the commercial risk of revenue income which was now lacking, this might seem reasonable; but the PPR successfully argued that this was not provided for in the Working Agreement, and they refused to share the money.
From 18 August 1871 another independent operator started a service between Donaghadee and Portpatrick. On 29 August the vessel, named Aber, was rammed in thick fog by an Atlantic steamer and sank in five minutes; the new service had lasted 12 days.
As a visible indication of the decline of the port, the Portpatrick lighthouse was dismantled in 1871 and shipped to, and erected in Colombo in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka).
A final attempt at a regular service started on 7 June 1873, but there was little patronage and it ceased five days later, on 12 July 1873. £500,000 had been expended on the harbour. In October 1874 the rails were lifted and moved to Newton Stewart to be used in the extension of siding accommodation there.
If the Post Office was unwilling to support Portpatrick, they were not opposed to taking advantage of a route that did not need massive capital expenditure, and from March 1871 they agreed to pay £1,500 annually for the carriage of mail over the PPR, on the basis of trains running in direct connection with night mail trains on the main line. This encouraged the PPR to support a Larne and Stranraer Steamboat Company in running a daily return crossing on that route, from 1 July 1872; the vessel was the Princess Louise. This improved the finances of the PPR considerably, and the Company agreed to the use of a small shunting engine to take passenger coaches on to the East Pier at Stranraer; the flimsy structure had not previously been used and passengers had to walk along the unsheltered jetty to the ships.
Late in 1875 a second, similar, steamer was commissioned, named Princess Beatrice.
The East Pier at Stranraer was owned and maintained by the Town Council. It had never been robust, and subsidence and other difficulties demanded urgent repairs in May 1876. The Council was unwilling to execute the work, costed at £6,000, and after considerable wrangling, the PPR obtained Parliamentary authorisation to take over the pier, by Act of 28 June 1877.
The area of Galloway known as the Machars lies south of Newton Stewart between Luce Bay and Wigtown Bay. The agricultural land is the most productive in the area and the several ports served coastal and international shipping. Proposals were made in 1863 for a railway to be built in the area, but it was not until 1871 that sufficient interest in a railway scheme was generated. The proposed line was from Newton Stewart on the PPR southwards to Wigtown and nearly to Garliestown,[note 6] then turning away to Whithorn. The divergence was due to the hostility of the 9th Earl of Galloway who owned extensive lands in the area. The harbour of Garliestown was to be reached by a short horse-operated tramway branch, running partly along the road.
The Wigtownshire Railway (WR) was authorised by Act of 18 July 1872, with capital of £96,000 and the usual one-third borrowing powers, only to be accessible if a certain proportion of shares had been subscribed. The 1½-mile (2 km) tramway could not be operated by locomotives, nor by stationary engine or as an “atmospheric railway”. The main line was to be just over 19 miles (31 km) long.
Construction proceeded, although share subscription was not as full as hoped, and the Company started to consider working arrangements. The obvious sponsor was the Caledonian Railway, but the CR had lost money working the PPR and declined. The WR decided to work the line itself, and were pleasantly surprised to receive a letter dated 7 January 1875 from Thomas Wheatley, who had (it transpired) recently resigned under a cloud from the North British Railway, where he had been locomotive superintendent. Wheatley offered to do everything necessary to work and maintain the line for 65% of gross receipts. This seemed too good to be true but, taking Wheatley’s misdemeanour into account, everything seemed in order, and Wheatley was given the working contract for five years from 31 July 1875.
The section from Newton Stewart to Wigtown was ready for goods operation on 1 March 1875 and locomotive no. 1, a 2-2-2 well tank obtained by Wheatley from the NBR (their no. 32) arrived to take up its duties. Goods traffic started on 3 March 1875 and a passenger service to Wigtown was begun on 7 April 1875 with some four-wheel coaches, thought to be second hand from the LNWR. There were four journeys each way daily. There were no intermediate stations until May when platforms at Causewayend and Mains of Penninghame were ordered to be installed. There was not a frequent service here: the 10.20 a.m. and 4.20 p.m. trains called on Fridays only, Newton Stewart market day.
At this time the planned construction of the line was to extend to Sorbie, as the available share subscriptions would only reach that far. However Sorbie was a poor location for a terminal, and thought turned to reached Garliestown, another two miles (3 km) further. Certain directors agreed to subscribe further funds, amounting to £7,000 and the work was quickly put in hand. The line was opened throughout from Newton Stewart to a Garliestown station on 2 August 1875. Wheatley procured a second engine, no. 2, an 0-4-2 pannier tank, formerly an 0-4-2 tender engine, no. 146 of the NBR.
The station called Garliestown was at the point of junction of the projected Whithorn line, but it was some distance from Garliestown itself. It was now decided to build a railway extension to Garliestown, and this was laid out on the north side of the road, whereas the authorised tramway would have been in the road. This line was not authorised by Parliament, and it was paid for by separate subscriptions by the Directors. It opened on 3 April 1876, and four trains daily ran from Newton Stewart to the new Garliestown station; the earlier one was renamed Millisle and downgraded to goods service only. The track layout there involved a backshunt to reach Garliestown.
The line between Garliestown and Wigtown may have closed to passengers briefly in August 1876.
Wheatley now obtained two more locomotives: no. 3 was an 0-4-2 tender engine, Addison from the Fleetwood, Preston and West Riding Junction Railway, and Gardner, an 0-4-0 tender engine converted from an 0-4-2 saddle tank from the same line became no. 4.
So Wigtown and Garliestown had been reached, the latter by an unauthorised railway branch; but Whithorn interests had subscribed money to the railway, and it was still four miles (6 km) from their town. Energetic canvassing for share subscription proved to be successful, and enough money came in to let a contract to complete the line. Fresh Parliamentary authority was obtained in the 1877 session to extend the share capital and to legalise the Garliestown branch.
The Whithorn extension was ready for a ceremonial opening on 7 July 1877 and it was opened to the public on 9 July; a fifth engine, another 2-2-2 well tank, was obtained by Wheatley; formerly no. 31A of the NBR, it became WR no. 5. The Garliestown section was now operated as a shuttle branch line from a new Millisle station, 7 chains (140 m) north of the original Garliestown station. In December 1877 a platform was provided at Broughton Skeog level crossing. There were four passenger (or mixed) trains each way daily on the Whithorn main line, and seven shuttle services on the Garliestown branch. As well as passengers, cattle were a dominant traffic from the agricultural activity in the area, and imports from the harbours also. Excursion steamers ran from Garliestown to the Isle of Man, and excursion trains ran in connection from Stranraer and Dumfries.
Wheatley’s operating contract expired on 31 July 1880 and in the absence of offers from the CR and G&SWR, the WR board negotiated a renewal with Wheatley, on slightly less favourable (to him) terms. Wheatley now brought another engine, no. 6, into the fleet he operated: an 0-6-0 saddle tank Bradby that he had been using elsewhere on contract work. At about this time the 2-2-2 no. 1 was rebuilt as a 2-4-0. The 0-4-0 no. 4 seems to have been unsatisfactory and after a period laid up, was converted to an 0-4-2 saddle tank; after the conversion this locomotive proved much more useful.
On 13 March 1883 Wheatley died suddenly. His son, W T Wheatley had for several years been assisting him on the line, and took over the working contract until the end of the Wigtownshire Railway’s independent existence. The Portpatrick and Wigtownshire Joint Railways were vested on 1 August 1885 and the independent existence of the Wigtownshire Railway took effect on 31 December 1885. The Wheatleys had served the little Company well in operating the line with the barest of financial resources.
David L Smith gives two references to the use of tender-cab locomotives on the Whithorn line, at unspecified dates. In Tales of the Glasgow and South Western Railway (photograph before page 41) he reproduces a photograph of an 0-4-2; the caption reads “No. 17029, at one period no. 114. Fitted with tender cab for working Whithorn branch. In Legends he refers to “that old Millisle stalwart, No. 17440, with the tender cab”.
From 1873 the Midland Railway (MR) was nearing completion of its line to Carlisle—the Settle and Carlisle line—and it needed a Scottish partner: the G&SWR. The Midland was thinking strategically, wishing to recoup the expense of its long new trunk line, and it energised the G&SWR to do the same. The two companies formed a powerful Anglo-Scottish alliance. The rival Caledonian Railway was working the Portpatrick Railway line, and the Portpatrick Railway itself had become much more profitable in later years, paying a peak dividend of 4¾%. The CR working contract was due to expire in 1885 and the MR and G&SWR began to consider the implications. The CR and its English partner, the London and North Western Railway (LNWR) naturally wished to retain control, and the power struggle reached a stalemate. The outcome was that all four parties offered to acquire the railway jointly, guaranteeing Portpatrick Railway shareholders 3½% on their holdings. This was an attractive offer, and after some negotiation on matters of detail, the arrangement was agreed, with the addition that the Wigtownshire Railway was to be included.
A Parliamentary Bill was presented, proposing a vesting date of 1 August 1885. The Portpatrick and Wigtownshire Railways (Sale and Transfer) Act was actually passed on 6 August 1885. 3½% guaranteed stock was issued, one for one to Portpatrick Railway shareholders, and one for two to Wigtownshire Railway shareholders. The sale value was £491,980, which included £10,000 of stock in the Larne and Stranraer Steamboat Company. The four owning railways: LNWR, MR, CR and G&SWR were to form a Joint Committee to manage the line, and the Portpatrick Railway Company and the Wigtownshire Railway Company were to be dissolved on 1 January 1886. The LNWR was granted running powers over the G&SWR between Dumfries and Castle Douglas, and the MR acquired running powers between Carlisle and Gretna Junction. The “Stranraer Section” Joint Committee would continue to administer the section between Challoch Junction and Stranraer, accessed by trains from the Girvan line, although these were worked entirely by the G&SWR.
The two Scottish companies were to share the operational control between them, although Joint Committee meetings seem to have taken place in London. Wheatley’s rolling stock fleet was purchased at valuation (£6,400).
Domestic operation did not change much at first; but the London trains ran from Dumfries to Carlisle via Annan rather than via Lockerbie, with a significant time saving. The MR put on a six-wheel Pullman sleeping car.
The G&SWR now got a share of the working; their train crews had no familiarity with the route at first, and the Caledonian Railway refused to provide conductors. Smith recounts an early trip:
Shankland and McGill were coming from Dumfries to Stranraer with the evening train. It was dark when they left Creetown—an’ Jock says t’me, “Well, that’s Newton Stewart noo”. But as they descended the long bank, doubts assailed McGill. “Canny on, man, Jock” says I. Is there no a station aboot here?” “Whitna station?” says he. “Dod,” says I, “I think they ca’ it Palnyowr or something”. So we stoppit, an gor, we were half a mile by it! So we backit up. There were nae signals, only a caun’le in the winda. Naebody gaed oot or got in, so we just gaed on tae Newton Stewart again.”
It emerged that the Wigtownshire line was in a very run-down state and engine power was frequently inadequate. The permanent way needed to be completely renewed (except on the Garliestown branch) in 1886.
Signalling was upgraded on the Portpatrick line in 1886-1887, with electric train tablet instruments, and this was extended to the Challoch Junction – Stranraer section in 1887 – 1888.
In the 1895 public passenger timetable, the former Portpatrick Railway main line had four trains each way daily; the first down and last up were fast trains, with “Sleeping Saloon between Euston and Stranraer Harbour”. The other trains ran only to or from Stranraer (Town), three each way continuing to Portpatrick. There was an additional short working from Newton Stewart to Stranraer (Town) and back. The Whithorn line had four trains each way, most of them having a connection both to and from Garliestown.
At this time there were eight short workings each way between Stranraer and Dunragit, calling at Castle Kennedy. There were four G&SWR workings to and from Stranraer over the Challoch to Stranraer section.
In the first years of the century, the Manson tablet exchange apparatus (referred to as Manson’s travelling tablet catcher) was installed on the line, enabling exchange of the single line tablets at signal boxes at a higher speed than with manual exchange. Acceleration of the fast trains was planned, and the Traffic Manager, Hutchinson, asked of the Engineer, Melville, “I assume that there can be no objection to the inclusive speed of one of our trains being increased from 36 to 40 mph. The road, I take it, is as good as can be found anywhere.” Melville replied “There can be no objection at all to the express trains running at the inclusive speed you refer to …” The acceleration was applied from July 1901.
At this period loadings on the express trains was increasing, leading to operating difficulties, and from March 1904 it was indicated that the mail train would run in duplicate.
Regular passenger services ceased on the Garliestown branch on 1 March 1903; Millisle was then renamed Millisle for Garlieston and trains reverted to calling at the original Garliestown station. The railway continued to provide excursion trains to Garliestown in connection with steamer excursions until 1935.
In 1922 there was a bad derailment near Palnure. When the state of the permanent way was assessed, “the Ministry of Transport was a bit shocked … so the entire PP&W main line was put under a 45 mph restriction till it could be reballasted and relaid. This was carried out in the next two years.”
In the 1921 grouping the line became part of the London, Midland and Scottish Railway (LMS).
As locomotive designs developed, the difficult route of the Portpatrick an Wigtownshire line was unable to take advantage of large locomotive traction. Smith records that “At the end of March 1939 there came momentous news—official sanction for a 60 ft [18 m]; 4-6-0s to work to Stranraer”. On 23 March 1939 a trial run was made with a 4-6-0, with the locomotive and tender separated at Stranraer to turn them. “There was no prospect of the 60 ft turntable being ready before late summer, so they laid longer rails, projecting at each end, on the existing 50 ft turntable. This allowed them to turn a Class 5 4-6-0. The class 5s began to work from Glasgow to Stranraer on 16 April 1939.
It was about October that the new 60 ft turntable was ready at Stranraer. Class 5X 4-6-0s were drafted in, and were the mainstay of the Stranraer road throughout the war.
World War II brought exceptional amounts of traffic to the line.
Smith records that 36 troop trains traversed the line in April 1940 as British forces were built up in Northern Ireland against the possibility of an enemy invasion of the Republic of Ireland. By the end of the year,
Large numbers of troops were now stationed in Northern Ireland, and the ordinary passenger [train] service proved quite inadequate for men going on leave to England and Wales. A special sailing had to be provided, with two large trains in connection. A train from London and one from Cardiff worked into Stranraer in the early morning, returning in the evening about 6.30 p.m. These were made up eventually to 16 coaches, each with a buffet car. Siding accommodation at Stranraer was terribly inadequate. They could service only one of those huge trains, so the Cardiff train had to be hauled to Ayr and back each day for servicing. Two Caley [Caledonian Railway] Class 3F 0-6-0s were put on this job.
Later in the war it was decided that an emergency west coast port should be established, to continue transatlantic trade in the event that Glasgow or Liverpool docks were disabled by enemy action. A new harbour facility was developed on Loch Ryan, called Cairnryan Harbour, and it was served by the Cairnryan Military Railway. This was a considerable undertaking. The new railway joined the Stranraer to Challoch line at Cairnryan Junction, about two miles (about 1 km) east of Stranraer, facing for trains approaching from the east. The point of junction was later moved closer to Stranraer, at Aird.
The line opened in July 1942. In the event the port was not needed, and only eighteen fully laden ocean-going vessels used the port during its lifetime. The port was closed after the war and the railway’s last movement was a dismantling train in 1967. Smith speculates that if the port had been needed at full capacity, the limited rail access over difficult single lines (from Dumfries and from Ayr) would have been challenging.
Goods services ran from Newton Stewart to Whithorn until the line closed on 5 October 1964. By the 1960s, these services ran three days per week; with conditional working on the Garlieston branch, when required.
The section from Colfin to Portpatrick also closed in 1950; although Colfin to Stranraer remained open until 1959 for milk traffic. After that trains ran only to the north-western termini: Stranraer Town and Stranraer Harbour.
The former Wigtownshire Railway closed completely to passengers on 29 September 1950; and the Portpatrick to Stranraer Town section closed in stages in the 1950s.
The main line closed on 12 June 1965.
Major structures on the route include the Loch Ken viaduct, across the Dee, the Gatehouse viaduct across the Big Water of Fleet, and the Glenluce viaduct, over the Water of Luce.
The Portpatrick Railway opened between Castle Douglas and Stranraer (later Town station) on 12 March 1861; from Stranraer to Portpatrick on 28 August 1862; and the East Pier branch at Stranraer (later Stranraer Harbour) on 1 October 1862. The Portpatrick Harbour section opened on 11 September 1868; it is likely that passenger use ceased in November 1868, but the short line remained open until 1870. However Portpatrick railway station, which opened on 28 August 1862, remained open until 6 February 1950.
The line closed from Castle Douglas to Challoch Junction on 14 June 1965. The Challoch Junction to Stranraer (Harbour) section remains in use for trains from Ayr via Girvan.
and in Wigtownshire:
The Wigtownshire Railway opened as far as Wigtown to goods traffic on 3 March 1875 and to passengers on 7 April 1875; it was extended to the first “Garliestown” station on 2 August 1875
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, and again to the second Garliestown on 3 April 1876. The extension to Whithorn opened on 9 July 1877. The entire line closed on 25 September 1950.
Locations on the Wigtownshire Railway main line were:
and on the Garliestown branch:
A remarkable engineering structure on the line is the Big Water of Fleet Viaduct, about a mile (2 km) north-east of the former Dromore station. It was the largest structure on the Portpatrick Railway, being a stone viaduct of twenty spans. In the early years of the twentieth century it was in danger of failing and extensive repair work was carried out from 1926, including sheathing the piers in heavy brickwork and spandrel strengthening using old rails; the repairs considerably degraded its aesthetic appearance. It is class B listed.
On the Stranraer to Portpatrick section, a three span viaduct was necessary to cross the Piltanton Burn near Lochans; it had 36 ft 9in (11 m) spans with a height of 73 feet (22 m).
The gradients on the Portpatrick Railway main line were severe: gently undulating from Castle Douglas to New Galloway, they then formed a stiff climb at 1 in 80 to Loch Skerrow, the alternately falling and rising at 1 in 76 to the summit at agethouse of Fleet. There was then an unbroken descent of 6½ miles (10½ km) at 1 in 80 to near Palnure. A less constant climb then led to a summit near the 40 milepost between Kirkcowan and Glenluce, then falling at a ruling gradient of 1 in 80 nearly to Challoch Junction. From Stranraer there was a stiff continuous climb at 1 in 72 to a summit at Colfin, at an elevation of 326 feet (99 m) above sea level, then a descent at 1 in 80 to Portpatrick.
Only the Stranraer Harbour to Challoch Junction section is open; and is now served by services on the Glasgow South Western Line.
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